Freezing temperatures smashed records in parts of Ireland last month, Met Eireann said.
While most weather stations around the country recorded the coldest November since 1985, Dublin was hit even harder by the frosty conditions.
The mercury plunged to minus 9.1C (16F) at Casement Aerodrome, Baldonnel, on Sunday - the lowest air temperature since records began there in 1964.
Ground temperatures at the military airbase dropped even further to minus 13.7C (7F), the lowest on record for the month.
However, it was sunnier than usual across the country, with Belmullet in Co Mayo enjoying its sunniest November in more than 50 years.
Dublin Airport recorded its coldest ever November day on Sunday as temperatures plummeted to below minus 6C (21F) in many places around the country.
Met Eireann said the sharp drop was brought on by an anticyclone that shifted to the far north-west of Ireland, bringing in a bitterly cold north-easterly airstream.
Wintry showers, initially in coastal areas of the east and north-west, became more widespread, resulting in snow over most of the country, with severe frost and freezing fog in places.
There was air frost for up to 14 days in the east and midlands, around twice the normal level for November.