Almost 160 police officers are sacked each year after private misconduct hearings, a freedom of information request has revealed.
Police forces across Britain have dismissed 477 officers in hearings behind closed doors over three years, data collected by The Times showed.
The newspaper said the subjects of the hearings ranged from perverting the course of justice to criminal activity and breaches of discipline.
The data showed that as a result of the hearings, 52 officers were demoted and hundreds fined or reprimanded. The newspaper said many of the accused are suspended on full pay or placed on restricted duties for long periods of time.
The Independent Police Complaints Commission has the power to order public hearings.
After the conclusion of the Ian Tomlinson inquest, the watchdog ordered that Pc Simon Harwood - the officer who pushed the newspaper seller to the ground shortly before his death at the G20 protests - must have his gross misconduct hearing heard in public.