Media studies survives A-level cull
Media studies has survived a cull of A-level subjects, while leisure studies has been axed, England's exam regulator has announced.
Ofqual said home economics, citizenship studies and communication and culture A-levels were among those being scrapped in a move to toughen examinations.
GCSEs in digital communications, expressive arts and hospitality and catering are also being dropped.
The subjects will no longer be taught or offered for examination from 2017, although some will be axed sooner because they are being replaced by reformed qualifications set to be introduced in 2015 or 2016, Qfqual said.
The watchdog's chief regulator Glenys Stacey said: "We have considered which subjects have the potential to meet our principles, including the need to ensure that all reformed subjects are of an appropriate level of academic demand.
"It is now for the Department for Education to consider whether content can be developed for those subjects that we think could meet our principles and, in turn, for exam boards to decide whether to submit specifications to us for accreditation. Importantly, we are not ruling out the future development of any subject."
AS and A-levels being scrapped: Anthropology, applied arts and design, applied business, applied information and communication technology, applied science, citizenship studies, communications and culture, economics and business, home economics (food, nutrition and health), human biology, humanities, leisure studies, media: communication and production, performance studies, performing arts, pure mathematics, science in society, travel and tourism, use of mathematics (AS).
GCSE subjects being scrapped: Additional and further additional science, additional applied science, applied business, applied science, business and communication systems, business studies and economics, catering, digital communications, environmental science, expressive arts, home economics - food and nutrition, home economics - textiles, hospitality and catering, human health and physiology, humanities, law, leisure and tourism, manufacturing, performing arts.