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Queen's 90th birthday: How the world has changed since she was born

Published 22/04/2016

File photo dated 01/05/1926 of the Queen Mother (then the Duchess of York) with her husband, King George VI (then the Duke of York), and their daughter Princess Elizabeth (now Queen Elizabeth II) at her christening as the Queen turns 90 on the April 21st.
File photo dated 01/05/1926 of the Queen Mother (then the Duchess of York) with her husband, King George VI (then the Duke of York), and their daughter Princess Elizabeth (now Queen Elizabeth II) at her christening as the Queen turns 90 on the April 21st.

From the invention of television through the Second World War, men landing on the moon, political assassination and the fall of the Iron Curtain Her Majesty has been a witness to unforgettable moments of history.

1926 General Strike. Duchess of York gives birth to Princess Elizabeth. Television invented.

1927 BBC begins broadcasts. Charles Lindbergh makes the first solo non-stop flight across the Atlantic.

1928 Oxford English Dictionary completed after 70 years’ work. Walt Disney creates Mickey Mouse. Alexander Fleming discovers penicillin.

1929 Wall Street Crash triggers the Great Depression.

1930 Unemployment reaches 2.5 million. Princess Margaret Rose born.

1931 First London trolley bus, television outside broadcast, electric razor, German pocket battleship.

1932 Oswald Mosley launches British Union of Fascists.

1933 Hitler becomes German Chancellor. UK unemployment hits three million.

1935 Italy invades Ethiopia.

File photo dated 03/05/1928 of Princess Elizabeth (now Queen Elizabeth II) waving from the carriage as she drives in London as the Queen turns 90 on the April 21st.
File photo dated 03/05/1928 of Princess Elizabeth (now Queen Elizabeth II) waving from the carriage as she drives in London as the Queen turns 90 on the April 21st.
File photo dated 06/11/1935 of Princess Elizabeth (now Queen Elizabeth II) who turns 90 on the April 21st.
File photo dated 15/12/1948 of Princess Elizabeth (now Queen Elizabeth II) holding her son Prince Charles after his Christening ceremony in Buckingham Palace as the Queen turns 90 on the April 21st.
File photo dated 01/01/1933 of two year old Princess Margaret (seated) with her sister Princess Elizabeth (now Queen Elizabeth II) as the Queen turns 90 on the April 21st.
File photo dated 12/05/1937 of Queen Elizabeth (the Queen Mother) with her eldest daughter Princess Elizabeth (now Queen Elizabeth II) on the balcony of Buckingham Palace, after the coronation of King George VI as the Queen turns 90 on the April 21st.
File photo dated 10/07/1949 of Princess Elizabeth (now Queen Elizabeth II) opening a holiday centre for young people at Avon Tyrell, Hampshire as the Queen turns 90 on the April 21st.
File photo dated 01/01/1945 of Princess Elizabeth (now Queen Elizabeth II) at the wheel of an Army vehicle when she served during the Second World War in the Auxiliary Territorial Service as the Queen turns 90 on the April 21st.
File photo dated 01/05/1926 of the Queen Mother (then the Duchess of York) with her husband, King George VI (then the Duke of York), and their daughter Princess Elizabeth (now Queen Elizabeth II) at her christening as the Queen turns 90 on the April 21st.
File photo dated 01/01/1942 of Princess Elizabeth (now Queen Elizabeth II) in her Girl Guide uniform as the Queen turns 90 on the April 21st. PRESS ASSOCIATION Photo. Issue date: Sunday April 3, 2016. See PA story ROYAL Birthday. Photo credit should read: PA Wire
File photo dated 30/03/2004 of Britain's Queen Elizabeth II peers round a corner during a visit to the Royal Albert Hall in London, marking the end of an 8 year restoration program as she turns 90 on the April 21st. PRESS ASSOCIATION Photo. Issue date: Sunday April 3, 2016. See PA story ROYAL Birthday. Photo credit should read: PA Wire
File photo dated 28/07/90 of Queen Elizabeth II at Ascot for the King George VI and Queen Elizabeth Diamond Stakes as she turns 90 on the April 21st. PRESS ASSOCIATION Photo. Issue date: Sunday April 3, 2016. See PA story ROYAL Birthday. Photo credit should read: Adam Butler/PA Wire
File photo dated 21/12/84 of (left to right) the Queen Mother, Queen Elizabeth II, Prince William, Prince Harry and the Prince and Princess of Wales after the christening ceremony of Prince Harry as the Queen turns 90 on the April 21st. PRESS ASSOCIATION Photo. Issue date: Sunday April 3, 2016. See PA story ROYAL Birthday. Photo credit should read: PA Wire
File photo dated 01/06/1967 of Queen Elizabeth II at the garden party in the grounds of the Royal Hospital, Chelsea, London, to mark the 50th anniversary of women in active service, during the Second World War as she turns 90 on the April 21st. PRESS ASSOCIATION Photo. Issue date: Sunday April 3, 2016. See PA story ROYAL Birthday. Photo credit should read: PA Wire
File photo dated 02/06/1959 of Queen Elizabeth II and Duke of Edinburgh at Windsor joined by Sugar, one of the Royal corgis as the Queen turns 90 on the April 21st. PRESS ASSOCIATION Photo. Issue date: Sunday April 3, 2016. See PA story ROYAL Birthday. Photo credit should read: PA Wire
File photo dated 12/03/47 of Princess Elizabeth (now Queen Elizabeth II) riding Jill while Princess Margaret (right) rides Treasure owned by Pat O'Reilly (left) at Bonza Beach, East London, during a break from the royal tour of South Africa, as more than any other interest, horses and ponies have been the Queen's passion throughout her long life. PRESS ASSOCIATION Photo. Issue date: Sunday April 3, 2016. The monarch's love for the equine world is something she shared with her mother and she has been breeding and racing horses for more than 60 years. See PA story ROYAL Birthday Horse. Photo credit should read: PA Wire
File photo dated 21/04/86 of Queen Elizabeth II leaving St Georges Chapel, Windsor following a thanksgiving service at the chapel to mark her 60th birthday, as the Queen's birthday celebrations over the past 90 years have ranged from a quiet morning ride with her children at Windsor to a grand birthday ball for 500 guests. PRESS ASSOCIATION Photo. Issue date: Sunday April 3, 2016. Her 40th birthday coincided with the State Opening of Parliament and her 80th was a busy affair including a walkabout, an intimate family dinner followed by fireworks, and a special tribute from the Prince of Wales broadcast to the nation. The monarch celebrates two birthdays each year: her actual one on April 21, as well as her official one on a Saturday in June marked by the Trooping the Colour parade. See PA story ROYAL Birthday Past. Photo credit should read: PA Wire
File photo dated Queen Elizabeth (now the Queen Mother) & Princess Elizabeth (now Queen Elizabeth II)hold on to their hats as they arrive at Westminster Abbey, as towards the end of her life the Queen Mother was seen as the nation's grandmother, a venerable figure who liked following horse racing form and entertaining her friends. PRESS ASSOCIATION Photo. Issue date: Sunday April 3, 2016. The Queen's cousin, Margaret Rhodes, said the Queen Mother's death in 2002 at the age of 101 had a profound effect on her daughter: "Not only of sadness but in a way that she could come into her own as the head of the family and as the most senior royal lady." See PA story ROYAL Birthday Influences. Photo credit should read: PA Wire
File photo dated 08/06/82 of Queen Elizabeth II riding her horse Centennial in Windsor Home Park, as more than any other interest, horses and ponies have been the Queen's passion throughout her long life. PRESS ASSOCIATION Photo. Issue date: Sunday April 3, 2016. The monarch's love for the equine world is something she shared with her mother and she has been breeding and racing horses for more than 60 years. See PA story ROYAL Birthday Horse. Photo credit should read: PA Wire
File photo dated 20/11/79 of Queen Elizabeth II (third left) and her family enjoying a stroll with their dogs in the grounds of Balmoral Castle, as Corgis have been the Queen's life-long companions - small dogs described as having big personalities. PRESS ASSOCIATION Photo. Issue date: Sunday April 03, 2016. The head of state is famed for her love of the breed with many of her dogs descended from her first pet Susan, who was an 18th birthday present from her parents. See PA story ROYAL Birthday Dogs. Photo credit should read: Ron Bell/PA Wire
File photo dated 29/04/26 of the then Duke and Duchess of York with their baby daughter Princess Elizabeth (now Queen Elizabeth II), as the Queen was born in 1926 - the year of the country's first and only General Strike. PRESS ASSOCIATION Photo. Issue date: Sunday April 3, 2016. Just days after Princess Elizabeth of York arrived into the world, Britain's miners walked out over attempts by pit owners to increase their working hours, but reduce their wages. In a move of solidarity, other industries - ranging from bus, rail, and docks to iron, steel and chemical workers - joined them. See PA story ROYAL Birthday 1926. Photo credit should read: PA Wire
File photo dated 28/11/01 of Queen Elizabeth II (left) in the Queen Vic pub during a visit to Elstree Studios where EastEnders is filmed. She was accompanied by long standing cast member Barbara Windsor (Peggy Mitchell) and her on-screen son Steve McFadden (Phil Mitchell) as the Queen turns 90 on the April 21st. PRESS ASSOCIATION Photo. Issue date: Sunday April 3, 2016. See PA story ROYAL Birthday. Photo credit should read: Fiona Hanson/PA Wire
File photo dated 20/07/11 of Queen Elizabeth II during a visit to the National Memorial Arboretum, Staffordshire, where she laid a wreath next to the wall of the Armed Forces Memorial as she turns 90 on the April 21st. PRESS ASSOCIATION Photo. Issue date: Sunday April 3, 2016. See PA story ROYAL Birthday. Photo credit should read: Rui Vieira/PA Wire
File photo dated 16/09/10 of Queen Elizabeth II talking with Pope Benedict XVI during an audience in the Morning Drawing Room at the Palace of Holyroodhouse in Edinburgh during a four day visit by the Pope to the UK as she turns 90 on the April 21st. PRESS ASSOCIATION Photo. Issue date: Sunday April 3, 2016. See PA story ROYAL Birthday. Photo credit should read: David Cheskin/PA Wire
File photo dated 23/07/00 of Queen Elizabeth II (left) and the Queen Mother leaving church by horse drawn carriage on the Sandringham Estate, Norfolk as the Queen turns 90 on the April 21st. PRESS ASSOCIATION Photo. Issue date: Sunday April 3, 2016. See PA story ROYAL Birthday. Photo credit should read: Stefan Rousseau/PA Wire
File photo dated 09/04/2005 of the Prince of Wales leaving St Georges Chapel in Windsor after marrying his former mistress Camilla Parker Bowles, making her an HRH and the Duchess of Cornwall. Queen Elizabeth II (behind) attended their religious blessing but was not present at their civil ceremony as the Queen turns 90 on the April 21st. PRESS ASSOCIATION Photo. Issue date: Sunday April 3, 2016. See PA story ROYAL Birthday. Photo credit should read: Stefan Rousseau/PA Wire
File photo dated 10/10/14 of actress Angelina Jolie (right) being presented with the Insignia of an Honorary Dame Commander of the Most Distinguished Order of St Michael and St George by Queen Elizabeth II in the 1844 Room at Buckingham Palace, London as the Queen turns 90 on the April 21st. PRESS ASSOCIATION Photo. Issue date: Sunday April 3, 2016. See PA story ROYAL Birthday. Photo credit should read: Anthony Devlin/PA Wire
File photo dated 11/10/02 of Queen Elizabeth II enjoying a walk about, after visiting the Old Government House in Fredericton, New Brunswick during her two week Royal visit to Canada as she turns 90 on the April 21st. PRESS ASSOCIATION Photo. Issue date: Sunday April 3, 2016. See PA story ROYAL Birthday. Photo credit should read: Kirsty Wigglesworth/PA Wire
File photo dated 21/04/1974 of Queen Elizabeth II smiling as she celebrated her 48th birthday at Windsor Castle as she turns 90 on the April 21st.
File photo dated 23/12/1987 of The Queen making her traditional Christmas Day address to the nation and the Commonwealth as she turns 90 on the April 21st.
File photo dated 08/07/1971 of Queen Elizabeth II leaving the King Edward VII Hospital for Officers after visiting Princess Anne. The Princess had an emergency operation for the removal of an ovarian cyst as the Queen turns 90 on the April 21st.
Queen Elizabeth II sitting with her corgis, at Virginia Water to watch competitors, including Prince Philip in the Marathon of the European Driving Championship, part of the Royal Windsor Horse Show PA Wire
File photo dated 10/1/1983 of Queen Elizabeth II inspecting the Guard of Honour at Jomo Kenyatta International Airport as she turns 90 on the April 21st. PRESS ASSOCIATION Photo. Issue date: Sunday April 3, 2016. See PA story ROYAL Birthday. Photo credit should read: Ron Bell/PA Wire
File photo dated 01/09/72 of Queen Elizabeth II in her study at Balmoral on the year of her silver wedding anniversary as she turns 90 on the April 21st. PRESS ASSOCIATION Photo. Issue date: Sunday April 3, 2016. See PA story ROYAL Birthday. Photo credit should read: PA Wire
File photo dated 16/07/91 of Queen Elizabeth II gesturing to Ruud Lubbers, Prime Minister of the Netherlands and President of the EC Council of Ministers, to sit on an empty chair after the Duke of Edinburgh was absent, as the leaders of the G7 Summit countries gathered for a pre-dinner photo-call in the Music Room at Buckingham Palace, London as the Queen turns 90 on the April 21st. PRESS ASSOCIATION Photo. Issue date: Sunday April 3, 2016. See PA story ROYAL Birthday. Photo credit should read: Martin Keene/PA Wire
File photo dated 22/11/1988 of The Duke of Edinburgh helping Queen Elizabeth II to alight from the new £120,000 Australia State Coach, Australia's bicentennial gift, at the Houses of Parliament as they arrive for the State Opening as she turns 90 on the April 21st. PRESS ASSOCIATION Photo. Issue date: Sunday April 3, 2016. See PA story ROYAL Birthday. Photo credit should read: David Jones/PA Wire
File photo dated 01/06/81 of Queen Elizabeth II walking through the crowds at the Royal Ascot race meeting as she turns 90 on the April 21st. PRESS ASSOCIATION Photo. Issue date: Sunday April 3, 2016. See PA story ROYAL Birthday. Photo credit should read: PA Wire
Queen Elizabeth II with some of her corgis walking the Cross Country course during the second day of the Windsor Horse Trials. PA Wire
File photo dated 21/11/92 of Queen Elizabeth II surveying the scene at following the fire at Windsor Castle as she turns 90 on the April 21st. PRESS ASSOCIATION Photo. Issue date: Sunday April 3, 2016. See PA story ROYAL Birthday. Photo credit should read: Sean Dempsey/PA Wire
File photo dated 21/04/1976 of Queen Elizabeth II on her 50th birthday with Prince Philip and their youngest son Prince Edward, 12, in the grounds of Windsor Castle as the Queen turns 90 on the April 21st. PRESS ASSOCIATION Photo. Issue date: Sunday April 3, 2016. See PA story ROYAL Birthday. Photo credit should read: PA Wire
File photo dated 15/06/85 of Queen Elizabeth II taking the salute of the Household Guards regiments during the Trooping of the Colour ceremony in London as she turns 90 on the April 21st. PRESS ASSOCIATION Photo. Issue date: Sunday April 3, 2016. See PA story ROYAL Birthday. Photo credit should read: PA Wire
File photo dated 08/11/60 of Queen Elizabeth II holding Prince Andrew during an outing in the grounds at Balmoral, Scotland. He was the first child to be born to a reigning monarch for 103 years as the Queen turns 90 on the April 21st. PRESS ASSOCIATION Photo. Issue date: Sunday April 3, 2016. See PA story ROYAL Birthday. Photo credit should read: PA Wire
File photo dated 25/12/57 of Queen Elizabeth II, in the Long Library at Sandringham, after making the first televised Christmas day broadcast to the nation. The Queen is holding the copy of 'Pilgrim's Progress', from which she read a few lines during her message as she turns 90 on the April 21st. PRESS ASSOCIATION Photo. Issue date: Sunday April 3, 2016. See PA story ROYAL Birthday. Photo credit should read: PA Wire
File photo dated 09/08/1951 of Princess Anne in the arms of Princess Elizabeth (now Queen Elizabeth II) with the Duke of Edinburgh, holding Prince Charles, in the grounds of Clarence House, their London residence as the Queen turns 90 on the April 21st. PRESS ASSOCIATION Photo. Issue date: Sunday April 3, 2016. See PA story ROYAL Birthday. Photo credit should read: PA Wire
File photo dated 15/05/54 of Prince Charles and Princess Anne with their parents, Queen Elizabeth II and Duke of Edinburgh, on the balcony of Buckingham Palace following their return from the Commonwealth tour as the Queen turns 90 on the April 21st. PRESS ASSOCIATION Photo. Issue date: Sunday April 3, 2016. See PA story ROYAL Birthday. Photo credit should read: PA Wire
File photo dated 30/07/1966 of England captain Bobby Moore holding the Jules Rimet Trophy, collected from the Queen Elizabeth II, after leading his team to a 4-2 victory over West Germany, in an exciting World Cup Final that went to extra time at Wembley, London as the Queen turns 90 on the April 21st.PRESS ASSOCIATION Photo. Issue date: Sunday April 3, 2016. See PA story ROYAL Birthday. Photo credit should read: PA Wire
File photo dated 03/11/1964 of Queen Elizabeth II leaving after the State Opening of Parliament as she turns 90 on the April 21st. PRESS ASSOCIATION Photo. Issue date: Sunday April 3, 2016. See PA story ROYAL Birthday. Photo credit should read: PA Wire
File photo dated 02/06/53 after the coronation in Westminster Abbey, London showing Queen Elizabeth II wearing the St. Edward Crown and carrying the Sceptre and the Rod as she turns 90 on the April 21st. PRESS ASSOCIATION Photo. Issue date: Sunday April 3, 2016. See PA story ROYAL Birthday. Photo credit should read: PA Wire
File photo dated 23/03/62 of Queen Elizabeth II (left) wearing a leopard-skin coat at a Sandown Park race meeting as she turns 90 on the April 21st. PRESS ASSOCIATION Photo. Issue date: Sunday April 3, 2016. See PA story ROYAL Birthday. Photo credit should read: PA Wire
File photo dated 01/07/58 of Queen Elizabeth II during her visit to Rothes Colliery, Fifeshire, it was her first visit to a coal mine and she spent about half an hour underground visiting the coal face as the Queen turns 90 on the April 21st. PRESS ASSOCIATION Photo. Issue date: Sunday April 3, 2016. See PA story ROYAL Birthday. Photo credit should read: PA Wire
File photo dated 07/02/52 of Queen Elizabeth II, in a black mourning outfit, waving as she returns to Clarence House in London the day after she became Queen as she turns 90 on the April 21st. PRESS ASSOCIATION Photo. Issue date: Sunday April 3, 2016. See PA story ROYAL Birthday. Photo credit should read: PA Wire
File photo dated 02/06/56 of Queen Elizabeth II walking through Windsor Great Park with Prince Charles to watch the Duke of Edinburgh play polo as she turns 90 on the April 21st. PRESS ASSOCIATION Photo. Issue date: Sunday April 3, 2016. See PA story ROYAL Birthday. Photo credit should read: PA Wire
File photo dated 20/11/1947 of Princess Elizabeth (now Queen Elizabeth II) and Lt Philip Mountbatten at Buckingham Palace after their wedding ceremony as the Queen turns 90 on the April 21st. PRESS ASSOCIATION Photo. Issue date: Sunday April 3, 2016. See PA story ROYAL Birthday. Photo credit should read: PA Wire
File photo dated 10/11/1946 of Princess Elizabeth (now Queen Elizabeth II) laying a wreath at the Cenotaph on Remembrance Sunday as she turns 90 on the April 21st. PRESS ASSOCIATION Photo. Issue date: Sunday April 3, 2016. See PA story ROYAL Birthday. Photo credit should read: PA Wire
File photo dated18/04/1944 of Princess Elizabeth (now Queen Elizabeth II) visiting the National Sea Scouts Exhibition at the London Scottish Headquarters in Buckingham Gate as the Queen turns 90 on the April 21st. PRESS ASSOCIATION Photo. Issue date: Sunday April 3, 2016. See PA story ROYAL Birthday. Photo credit should read: PA Wire
File photo dated 01/04/1939 of Princesses Elizabeth (now Queen Elizabeth II) and Margaret launching a model seaplane at the Bekonscot model village in Beaconsfield, Buckinghamshire as the Queen turns 90 on the April 21st. PRESS ASSOCIATION Photo. Issue date: Sunday April 3, 2016. See PA story ROYAL Birthday. Photo credit should read: PA Wire
File photo dated 27/06/1927 of the Duke and Duchess of York with King George V and Queen Mary and Princess Elizabeth (now Queen Elizabeth II) on the balcony of Buckingham Palace as the Queen turns 90 on the April 21st. PRESS ASSOCIATION Photo. Issue date: Sunday April 3, 2016. See PA story ROYAL Birthday. Photo credit should read: PA Wire
File photo dated 21/10/1950 of Princess Elizabeth (now Queen Elizabeth II) with her baby daughter, Princess Anne, after the christening at Buckingham Palace, London as the Queen turns 90 on the April 21st. PRESS ASSOCIATION Photo. Issue date: Sunday April 3, 2016. See PA story ROYAL Birthday. Photo credit should read: PA Wire
File photo dated 24/10/1931 of Princess Elizabeth (now Queen Elizabeth II) arriving at the 16th Century Church at Balcombe, Sussex, for the wedding of Lady May Cambridge and Captain Henry Abel Smith as the Queen turns 90 on the April 21st. PRESS ASSOCIATION Photo. Issue date: Sunday April 3, 2016. See PA story ROYAL Birthday. Photo credit should read: PA Wire
File photo dated 01/01/1938 of King George VI, his wife Queen Elizabeth and their two daughters, Princess Elizabeth (now Queen Elizabeth II, right) and Princess Margaret as the Queen turns 90 on the April 21st. PRESS ASSOCIATION Photo. Issue date: Sunday April 3, 2016. See PA story ROYAL Birthday. Photo credit should read: PA Wire
File photo dated 01/05/1936 of Princess Elizabeth (now Queen Elizabeth II, left) and Margaret with the Duke and Duchess of York at the Royal Tournament at Olympia in London as the Queen turns 90 on the April 21st. PRESS ASSOCIATION Photo. Issue date: Sunday April 3, 2016. See PA story ROYAL Birthday. Photo credit should read: PA Wire
BEST QUALITY AVAILABLE File photo dated 01/01/1943 of Princess Elizabeth (now Queen Elizabeth II, centre back) and King George VI, as the Queen turns 90 on the April 21st. PRESS ASSOCIATION Photo. Issue date: Sunday April 3, 2016. See PA story ROYAL Birthday. Photo credit should read: PA Wire
File photo dated 29/05/1930 of Princess Elizabeth (now Queen Elizabeth II) arriving at Olympia for the Royal Tournament as the Queen turns 90 on the April 21st. PRESS ASSOCIATION Photo. Issue date: Sunday April 3, 2016. See PA story ROYAL Birthday. Photo credit should read: PA Wire
File photo dated 27/05/1932 of Princess Elizabeth (now Queen Elizabeth II)walking bareheaded through the rain on her arrival home as the Queen turns 90 on the April 21st. PRESS ASSOCIATION Photo. Issue date: Sunday April 3, 2016. See PA story ROYAL Birthday. Photo credit should read: PA Wire
File photo dated 01/01/1941 of Princess Elizabeth (now Queen Elizabeth II) in the garden of her wartime country residence (Windsor) as the Queen turns 90 on the April 21st. PRESS ASSOCIATION Photo. Issue date: Sunday April 3, 2016. See PA story ROYAL Birthday. Photo credit should read: PA Wire
File photo dated 08/06/82 of the then US President Ronald Reagan and Queen Elizabeth II riding in Windsor Home Park, as more than any other interest, horses and ponies have been the Queen's passion throughout her long life. PRESS ASSOCIATION Photo. Issue date: Sunday April 3, 2016. The monarch's love for the equine world is something she shared with her mother and she has been breeding and racing horses for more than 60 years. See PA story ROYAL Birthday Horse. Photo credit should read: PA Wire
File photo dated 19/04/47 of Princess Elizabeth (now Queen Elizabeth II) during the Royal visit to the Natal National Park in South Africa, Shortly before her 21st birthday, as the Queen's birthday celebrations over the past 90 years have ranged from a quiet morning ride with her children at Windsor to a grand birthday ball for 500 guests. PRESS ASSOCIATION Photo. Issue date: Sunday April 3, 2016. Her 40th birthday coincided with the State Opening of Parliament and her 80th was a busy affair including a walkabout, an intimate family dinner followed by fireworks, and a special tribute from the Prince of Wales broadcast to the nation. The monarch celebrates two birthdays each year: her actual one on April 21, as well as her official one on a Saturday in June marked by the Trooping the Colour parade. See PA story ROYAL Birthday Past. Photo credit should read: PA Wire
File photo dated 16/06/12 of Queen Elizabeth II (fourth from left) and members of the British royal family (from left to right) the Duchess of Cornwall, the Prince of Wales, the Earl of Wessex, the Princess Royal, the Duke of Edinburgh, the Duchess of Cambridge, the Duke of Cambridge on the balcony of Buckingham Palace during the annual Trooping the Colour parade, in central London. The Queen may be the head of state, but she is also a mother of four, grandmother to eight grandchildren and great-grandmother to five. PRESS ASSOCIATION Photo. Issue date: Sunday April 3, 2016. While she is familiar around the world to millions as a sovereign, it is the Windsors who know the real Elizabeth II, sharing precious family time behind closed doors. See PA story ROYAL Birthday Family. Photo credit should read: Dominic Lipinski/PA Wire
File photo dated 22/04/68 of (left to right) The Duke of Edinburgh, Princess Anne, Prince Edward, Queen Elizabeth II, Prince Andrew and Prince Charles in the grounds of Frogmore House, Windsor, as the Queen may be the head of state, but she is also a mother of four, grandmother to eight grandchildren and great-grandmother to five. PRESS ASSOCIATION Photo. Issue date: Sunday April 3, 2016. While she is familiar around the world to millions as a sovereign, it is the Windsors who know the real Elizabeth II, sharing precious family time behind closed doors. See PA story ROYAL Birthday Family. Photo credit should read: PA Wire
File photo dated 05/07/15 of the Duchess of Cambridge and Queen Elizabeth II with Princess Charlotte during her christening, as the Queen may be the head of state, but she is also a mother of four, grandmother to eight grandchildren and great-grandmother to five. PRESS ASSOCIATION Photo. Issue date: Sunday April 3, 2016. While she is familiar around the world to millions as a sovereign, it is the Windsors who know the real Elizabeth II, sharing precious family time behind closed doors. See PA story ROYAL Birthday Family. Photo credit should read: Matt Dunham/PA Wire
Princess Elizabeth (now Queen Elizabeth II) holding a Corgi, as the breed have been the Queen's life-long companions - small dogs described as having big personalities. PA Wire
File photo dated 23/11/47 of Princess Elizabeth (now Queen Elizabeth II) and The Duke of Edinburgh during their first public appearance since their wedding, as more than any other person, the Duke of Edinburgh has had a profound effect on the Queen. PRESS ASSOCIATION Photo. Issue date: Sunday April 3, 2016. He has been a constant reassuring presence by her side at official events from the State Opening of Parliament to official trips abroad for more than 60 years. See PA story ROYAL Birthday Influences. Photo credit should read: PA Wire
File photo dated 01/04/44 of Queen Elizabeth (now the Queen Mother) and King George VI with their daughter Princess Elizabeth (now Queen Elizabeth II) shortly before her 18th birthday, as the Queen's birthday celebrations over the past 90 years have ranged from a quiet morning ride with her children at Windsor to a grand birthday ball for 500 guests. PRESS ASSOCIATION Photo. Issue date: Sunday April 3, 2016. Her 40th birthday coincided with the State Opening of Parliament and her 80th was a busy affair including a walkabout, an intimate family dinner followed by fireworks, and a special tribute from the Prince of Wales broadcast to the nation. The monarch celebrates two birthdays each year: her actual one on April 21, as well as her official one on a Saturday in June marked by the Trooping the Colour parade. See PA story ROYAL Birthday Past. Photo credit should read: PA Wire
File photo dated 01/01/1897 of Queen Victoria's Diamond Jubilee photographic portrait, as Elizabeth II will be the first British monarch to reach their 90th birthday. PRESS ASSOCIATION Photo. Issue date: Sunday April 3, 2016. She is the country's oldest ever sovereign - although is not thought to be keen on being reminded of this - and also the oldest monarch in the world. The Queen is some way ahead of her great-great-grandmother Victoria and her ancestor George III in the age stakes - they were both 81 when they died. See PA story ROYAL Birthday Queen. Photo credit should read: PA Wire

1936 George V dies and Edward VIII becomes King. His abdication forces his brother the Duke of York onto the throne as George VI.

1937 Coronation. Nazi leaders greet Duke and Duchess of Windsor in Berlin.

1938 Munich Agreement follows invasion of Austria.

1939 War with Germany.

1940 King and Queen stay put in Buckingham Palace through the Battle of Britain and the Blitz. Winston Churchill becomes Prime Minister.

1941 Pearl Harbour attacked as Japan enters war. Hitler’s deputy Rudolf Hess flies to Britain.

1942 Montgomery defeats Rommel at El Alamein.

1943 Italy surrenders.

1944 Normandy landings.

1945 Germany surrenders. Japan surrenders after atom bombs dropped on Nagasaki and Hiroshima.

1946 United Nations established. Churchill warns of Iron Curtain. Labour Government nationalises Bank of England and coal industry.

1947 National Health Service set up. Indian independence. Princess Elizabeth marries Philip Mountbatten.

1948 Railways, canals and road transport nationalised. Berlin airlift. London Olympics. National Health Service formed.

1949 Russia tests A-bomb. Establishment of Nato.

1950 UN landings at Inchon after start of Korean War.

1951 Festival of Britain.

1952 George VI dies and Princess Elizabeth becomes Queen.

1953 Sweet rationing ends in Britain. Queen Mary dies. Everest conquered on eve of the Coronation.

1954 Study links cancer to smoking. Crash grounds BOAC’s Comet aircraft. French defeated at Dien Bien Phu in Vietnam. Elvis releases his first record. Roger Bannister breaks the four minute mile record.

1955 Cyprus goes on strike against British rule. Sir Winston Churchill resigns as Prime Minister. Warsaw Pact signed by the Soviet Union and its Eastern Bloc allies. Princess Margaret calls off plans to marry Group Captain Peter Townsend.

1956 Hungarian uprising and Suez crisis. Prince Rainier III of Monaco marries American film actress Grace Kelly.

1957 Prime Minister Harold Macmillan tells a Tory rally “most of our people have never had it so good”. Treaty of Rome sets up European Economic Community. Russians launch the Sputnik satellite, the first man-made object ever to leave the Earth’s atmosphere.

1958 Race riots flare in Notting Hill. Munich air crash kills Manchester United players.

1959 The Mini car makes its first appearance and the first UK motorway, the M1, opens.

1960 Macmillan’s Wind of Change speech. Princess Margaret marries Tony Armstrong-Jones.

1961 Kennedy succeeds Eisenhower as US President. Berlin Wall rises. Soviet Union puts first man, Yuri Gagarin, into space.

1962 US spaceman John Glenn orbits the Earth. The Cuban Missile crisis is resolved.

1963 Lord Beeching wields axe on British Rail. Martin Luther King’s “I Have a Dream” speech. Kennedy assassination. Profumo scandal. Great Train Robbery. One of the coldest, snowiest winters on record.

1964 Beatlemania grips UK and US. Cassius Clay defeats Sonny Liston.

1965 Rhodesia declares independence. US bombs North Vietnam. Britain appoints its first woman High Court judge.

1966 Swinging London revolves around Carnaby Street and Kings Road. Queen Mother undergoes major abdominal surgery. England win the World Cup. Aberfan disaster in Wales.

1967 Breathalyser introduced. Arab-Israeli War. Nigerian Civil War. Abortion and homosexuality are legalised.

1968 Enoch Powell makes “rivers of blood” speech. The Troubles erupt with civil rights protests.

1969 Death penalty for murder permanently abolished in Britain. Prince of Wales’s Investiture at Caernarvon. British troops sent to Northern Ireland. American Neil Armstrong becomes first man to walk on the moon. Woodstock music festival.

1970 Voting age cut from 21 to 18. North Sea oil fields discovered. First jumbo jet lands at Heathrow. Edward Heath wins election for the Tories. Colonel Muammar Gaddafi takes over as leader of Libya.

1971 British entry into EEC agreed. Decimalisation is launched in the UK.

1972 Miners’ strike and power crisis — state of emergency declared. Industrial Relations Act disputes. Bloody Sunday. Duke of Windsor dies. First home video game system is released.

1973 Britain joins EEC. Princess Royal marries Captain Mark Phillips.

1974 Edward Heath loses narrowly to Harold Wilson, who wins second general election. US President Richard Nixon resigns over Watergate.

1975 Margaret Thatcher becomes Conservative Party leader. Sex Discrimination and Equal Pay Acts. End of Vietnam War.

1976 James Callaghan replaces Wilson at No 10. One of the hottest summers on record. Concorde begins commercial flights.

1977 Lib-Lab pact. Grunwick picket clashes. Punk rock. Silver Jubilee. The Queen becomes a grandmother.

1978 Rhodesia settlement. Anna Ford becomes ITN’s first prime time woman newscaster. Red Brigades kidnap former Italian premier Aldo Moro. World’s first test tube baby Louise Brown is born in Oldham. Winter of Discontent strikes.

1979 Margaret Thatcher becomes Britain’s first woman prime minister. Queen’s art adviser Anthony Blunt exposed as Russian spy. Fall of the Pol Pot regime in Cambodia. Islamic revolutionaries come to power in Iran.

1980 SAS storm Iranian Embassy. Runners Steve Ovett and Sebastian Coe win Olympic gold.

1981 Brixton riots. Prince of Wales weds Lady Diana Spencer. Unemployment reaches 2.5 million. Britain in recession. The launch of the first space shuttle — Columbia.

1982 Falklands War (below) — The Duke of York is among those serving in the forces. Intruder in Queen’s bedroom. Pope visits Britain. King Henry VIII’s Mary Rose raised to the surface. Prince William born. Economic recession.

1983 President Reagan’s Star Wars speech. Russians shoot down Korean jetliner.

1984 IRA bombs Grand Hotel, Brighton. Indira Gandhi assassinated. Bob Geldof Ethiopia appeal. Miners’ strikes.

1985 Bradford City football stadium fire kills 56. Heysel stadium riot kills 39. Live Aid concert to raise money for Ethiopian famine.

1986 Funeral of Duchess of Windsor at Frogmore. Prince Andrew marries Sarah Ferguson.

1987 Zeebrugge disaster. The Great Storm sweeps through southern England. IRA bombs Enniskillen Remembrance Day parade. Hungerford massacre. King’s Cross fire.

1988 Piper Alpha oil platform disaster. Lockerbie jumbo jet bombing. Government loses Spycatcher legal battle. Professor Stephen Hawking’s A Brief History of Time is published

1989 Hillsborough disaster. Berlin Wall falls. Tiananmen Square massacre. Salman Rushdie in hiding. Tim Berners-Lee invents World Wide Web.

1990 John Major becomes prime minister. Iraq invades Kuwait. Nelson Mandela is released from prison. Poll tax riots.

1991 Allies launch Operation Desert Storm in Gulf War against Iraq. Gorbachev resigns. Birmingham Six freed after 16 years in jail.

1992 The Queen’s “annus horribilis” — Princess Royal and Captain Phillips divorce, the Waleses and the Yorks separate, Windsor Castle goes up in flames. Black Wednesday — the day Britain crashed out of the ERM. The break-up of Yugoslavia.

1993 Publication of Prince of Wales’s intimate talk with Camilla Parker Bowles. IRA bomb Warrington. Buckingham Palace opens to the public.

1994 Labour leader John Smith dies. Queen and President Mitterrand open Channel Tunnel. 50th anniversary of D-Day. Prince of Wales admits adultery in TV documentary. IRA ceasefire. Queen visits Russia. Genocide in Rwanda.

1995 Official Aids cases pass one million mark. Barings Bank collapses. VE Day and VJ Day commemorated. Princess Diana’s Panorama interview.

1996 Duke and Duchess of York divorce. Prince and Princess of Wales divorce. Ban on exports of British beef amid BSE crisis.

1997 New Labour under Tony Blair beat Conservatives. Royal Yacht Britannia decommissioned. Diana, Princess of Wales dies in Paris car crash. Scotland and Wales vote for devolution. Dolly the Sheep cloned. Handover of Hong Kong to China.

1998 War breaks out in Europe as a Nato coalition attacks Yugoslavia. Digital TV launched. Operation Desert Fox in Iraq. Good Friday Agreement in Northern Ireland. Omagh bombing.

1999 Birth of single European currency, the euro. Prince Edward marries Sophie Rhys-Jones.

2000 Queen Mother’s 100th year. British rower Steve Redgrave makes Olympic history by winning his fifth consecutive gold medal. George W Bush becomes US President.

2001 September 11 terrorist attacks. Foot and mouth outbreak in UK. First space tourist. Britain joins US in strikes against the Taliban in Afghanistan.

2002 The Queen’s Golden Jubilee. Death of the Queen Mother and Princess Margaret. Twelve European Union countries adopt the euro.

2003 Britain and the US go to war against Saddam Hussein’s Iraq.

2004 Double Olympic gold for Kelly Holmes in 800m and 1500m in Athens. Asian tsunami kills more than 100,000.

2005 Pope John Paul II dies and is succeeded by Pope Benedict XVI. The Prince of Wales marries Camilla Parker Bowles. London wins 2012 Olympics bid. July 7 terror attacks in London. Civil partnerships give same-sex couples legal rights.

2006 Saddam Hussein is hanged in Baghdad. Lebanon War.

2007 Gordon Brown replaces Tony Blair as Prime Minister. The Queen and Duke of Edinburgh celebrate their diamond wedding anniversary.

2008 Jury returns a verdict of unlawful killing in inquest into the death of Diana, Princess of Wales. UK enters a recession following the financial crisis. Barack Obama elected to become the first black US President.

2009 Michael Jackson dies. Swine flu pandemic. MPs’ expenses scandal.

2010 David Cameron becomes Prime Minister leading a Tory-Liberal Democrat coalition. The Queen becomes a great-grandmother for the first time when Savannah Phillips is born. Volcanic ash cloud blowing in from Iceland grounds flights. Burma’s pro-democracy leader Aung San Suu Kyi is released from house arrest.

2011 Middle East uprising. Japanese tsunami. Nato air raids on Libya. Prince William marries Kate Middleton at Westminster Abbey. Queen visits Ireland. Summer riots.

2012 The Queen marks Diamond Jubilee. London 2012 Olympics. The Duke and Duchess of Cambridge announce they are expecting a baby.

2013 Continuing civil war in Syria. Pope Benedict XVI resigns. Cardinal Jorge Mario Bergoglio becomes Pope Francis. Baroness Thatcher and Nelson Mandela die. Prince George of Cambridge is born.

2014 Flooding in England and Wales. The first same-sex wedding takes place after gay marriage becomes legal in England and Wales. Ukraine crisis. Crisis in Iraq and Syria over the Islamic State militant group. Scotland votes “no” to independence. Ebola epidemic.

2015 Attacks on Charlie Hebdo magazine in Paris. Princess Charlotte of Cambridge born. Conservative win majority in general election. Migrant crisis. Queen becomes Britain’s longest reigning monarch. Terror attacks in Paris including at the Bataclan concert hall.

2016 Run-up to the EU referendum. Brussels terror attacks.

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From Belfast Telegraph