Anti-immigration party gains ground in German state elections
A nationalist, anti-migration party has powered into three German state legislatures in elections held amid divisions over chancellor Angela Merkel's liberal approach to the refugee crisis.
Mrs Merkel's conservatives also lost to centre-left rivals in two states they had hoped to win.
The elections in the prosperous south-western state of Baden-Wuerttemberg, neighbouring Rhineland-Palatinate and relatively poor Saxony-Anhalt in the ex-communist east were the first major political test since Germany registered nearly 1.1 million people as asylum-seekers last year.
The three-year-old Alternative for Germany party (AfD) - which has campaigned against Mrs Merkel's open-borders approach - easily entered all three legislatures.
AfD won 15.1% of the vote in Baden-Wuerttemberg, official results showed.
It scored about 12.5% in Rhineland-Palatinate and 24% in Saxony-Anhalt, where it finished second, according to projections by ARD and ZDF television with most districts counted.
AfD leader Frauke Petry said: "We are seeing above all in these elections that voters are turning away in large numbers from the big established parties and voting for our party."
She added that they "expect us finally to be the opposition that there hasn't been in the German parliament and some state parliaments".
There were uncomfortable results both for Mrs Merkel's conservative Christian Democratic Union (CDU) and their partners in the national government, the centre-left Social Democrats. The traditional rivals are Germany's two biggest parties.
Vice chancellor Sigmar Gabriel, the Social Democrats' leader, said: "The democratic centre in our country has not become stronger, but smaller, and I think we must all take that seriously."
Mrs Merkel's party kept its status as strongest party in Saxony-Anhalt. It had hoped to beat left-leaning Green governor Winfried Kretschmann in Baden-Wuerttemberg, a traditional stronghold that the CDU ran for decades until 2011. It also hoped to oust Social Democrat governor Malu Dreyer from the governor's office in Rhineland-Palatinate.
However, the CDU finished several percentage points behind the popular incumbents' parties in both states and dropped 12 percentage points to a record-low result in Baden-Wuerttemberg, with 27% support.
The Social Democrats suffered large losses in both Baden-Wuerttemberg and Saxony-Anhalt, where they were the junior partners in the outgoing governments, finishing behind AfD.
Other parties will not share power with AfD, but its presence will complicate their coalition-building efforts.
In all three states, the results were set to leave the outgoing coalition governments without a majority - forcing regional leaders into what could be time-consuming negotiations with new, unusual partners.
Mrs Merkel's CDU still has a long-shot chance of forming an untried three-way alliance to win the Baden-Wuerttemberg governor's office.
Germany's next national election is due in late 2017. While Sunday's results will likely generate new tensions, Mrs Merkel herself should be secure: she has put many state-level setbacks behind her in the past, and there is no long-term successor or figurehead for any rebellion in sight.
A top official with Mrs Merkel's party called for it to stay on its course in the migrant crisis.
CDU general secretary Peter Tauber pointed to recent polls indicating that her popularity is rebounding, and added: "This shows that it is good if the CDU sticks to this course, saying that we need time to master this big challenge."
Mrs Merkel insisted last year that "we will manage" the challenge of integrating migrants.
While her government has moved to tighten asylum rules, she still insists on a pan-European solution to the migrant crisis, ignoring demands from some conservative allies for a national cap on the number of refugees.
AfD's strong performance will boost its hopes of entering the national parliament next year. It entered five state legislatures and the European Parliament in its initial guise as a primarily anti-euro party before splitting and then rebounding in the migrant crisis.
The CDU may have been hurt by an attempt by its candidates in Baden-Wuerttemberg and Rhineland-Palatinate to put cautious distance between themselves and Mrs Merkel's migrant policies, which may simply have created the impression of disunity. The party slipped in polls there over recent weeks.
Mrs Merkel's conservative allies in Bavaria have attacked her approach for months, demanding an annual refugee cap.
Centre-left incumbents Mr Kretschmann and Ms Dreyer often sounded more enthusiastic about Mrs Merkel's refugee policy than their conservative challengers.
"The result hopefully will be that the CDU and (their Bavarian allies) will realise that this permanent quarrelling doesn't help them," vice chancellor Gabriel said.