A government think-tank says China should start phasing out its one-child policy immediately and allow two children for every family by 2015.
Some experts say that the timeline put forward by the China Development Research Foundation for phasing out the unpopular one-child limit is bold.
Others, though, warn that its gradual approach is insufficient to help correct the problems that China's strict birth limits have created.
The report will be made public next month but Chinese state media have been given advance copies.
The official Xinhua News Agency said the foundation recommends a two-child policy in some provinces from this year and a nationwide two-child policy by 2015.
The government had no immediate comment on the report.