Historic renovation at Jesus' tomb begins
A team of experts has begun a historic renovation at the spot where Christians believe Jesus was buried, overcoming longstanding religious rivalries to carry out the first repairs at the site in more than 200 years.
The project, which began on Monday, will focus on repairing, reinforcing and preserving the Edicule - the ancient chamber housing Jesus' tomb in Jerusalem's Church of the Holy Sepulchre.
It is the first such work at the tomb since 1810, when the shrine was restored and given its current shape following a fire.
An ornate structure with hanging oil lamps, columns and oversize candlesticks, the Edicule was erected above the spot where Christian tradition says Jesus' body was anointed, wrapped in cloth and buried before his resurrection. It stands a few hundred yards from the site of Jesus' crucifixion.
The church, characterised by stone staircases, dark chambers and golden decorations, is one of Christianity's holiest shrines. But that has not stopped clerics from engaging in turf rivalries over the years.
Roman Catholics, Greek Orthodox and Armenians are responsible for maintaining separate sections of the church, and each denomination jealously guards its domain.
While the clergymen who work and pray at the church generally get along, tensions can rise to the surface. In 2008, an argument between Greek Orthodox and Armenian monks erupted into a brawl.
This time, the clergymen have put aside their differences - a reflection of the dire need for the repairs.
Last year, Israeli police briefly shut down the building after Israel's Antiquities Authority deemed it unsafe, prompting the Christian denominations to join forces.
The three churches share possession of the shrine, holding prayer services at different times of the day and night, so restoring the Edicule was in everyone's interests.
"We equally decided the required renovation was necessary to be done, so we agreed upon it," said the Rev Samuel Aghoyan, the top Armenian official at the church.
Antonia Moropoulou, the scientific co-ordinator of the project, said the tomb is stable but is warped and needs urgent attention after years of exposure to environmental factors such as water, humidity and candle smoke.
"The marble and stone slabs have developed, due to the stresses, some deformations," said Ms Moropoulou, an architect at the National Technical University of Athens, which is supervising the renovation. In addition, the structure needs to be protected from the risk of earthquake damage.
She said that even an iron cage around the Edicule built by English authorities in 1947 cannot bear the stress. "So another solution is needed," she said.
The project will bolster the structure by, among other things, replacing the mortars and strengthening the columns. It is expected to take eight to 12 months, experts and church clerics said. During that time, pilgrims will be able to continue visiting the site, they said.
Some of the work is expected to take place early in the morning or late at night, when the church is closed. This quiet atmosphere will make it easier for experts to concentrate on the delicate task and help avoid disruptions for the thousands of pilgrims and tourists who visit each day.
The project will cost about 3.3 million dollars (£2.2 million), said Theophilos III, the Greek-Orthodox patriarch of Jerusalem. Each church is contributing funds. In addition, Jordan's King Abdullah made a personal donation in April for the project. Jordan controlled Jerusalem's Old City until the 1967 Middle East war, and the kingdom continues to play a role safeguarding Muslim and Christian holy sites.
Despite the sometimes tense relations between the denominations, the tomb served as a potent symbol of Christian unity when Pope Francis and the spiritual leader of the world's Orthodox Christians, Ecumenical Patriarch Bartholomew I, prayed together there in May 2014.
Likewise, today's restoration is bridging centuries-old divisions by being conducted in the name of all three major denominations that share possession.
Besides the supervisory role played by the National Technical University of Athens, the agreement also includes an architect from each denomination.
In a show of unity, on May 20 clerics from the three denominations posed and shook hands in front of the scaffolding erected around the tomb ahead of the work.
"What has happened is a very good sign, a sign of togetherness," said Theophilos III.
The church, one of the world's oldest, was built in 325 AD by the Roman Emperor Constantine. That structure was destroyed in 1009 by Muslim Caliph al-Hakim. A 12th-century restoration by the Crusaders gave the Holy Sepulchre its current appearance, while in 1808 a fire all but destroyed the Edicule.
In 1852, the Ottoman authorities then governing the Holy Land provided a framework for resolving disputes inside the church. They put into effect the "status quo", a set of historic laws and power-sharing arrangements that, to this day, rigidly regulates the denominations' activities inside the Holy Sepulchre.
The Rev Athanasius Macora, a Franciscan monk who represents the Catholics at the inter-church commission that negotiates disputes at the Holy Sepulchre, said the renovation might have been more ambitious if not for the status quo.
"I personally would have liked to maybe contemplate some alternative to simply restoring the current structure, but because the status quo is so conservative in its nature we had to more or less accept the fact that there would be no change whatsoever to the current structure, and it would be restored as it is now," he said.
Still, for pilgrims such as Italian Claudio Pardini, the restoration is "an important sign" that all of the Christian churches are getting together to preserve their faith's traditions.
"It's good to take care of our churches so that we can leave the next generations a sign, something to visit," he said. "Because Christ isn't an idea. He's a story."