The UN nuclear watchdog has voted to report Syria to the UN Security Council for violating its safeguard agreements, citing Syria's undeclared construction of a covert nuclear reactor and refusal to supply information.
The move by the International Atomic Energy Agency comes amid political protests in Syria, but Washington and its allies insist the timing has nothing to do with the crackdown on pro-democracy protesters and is separate from an effort by European nations to have the Security Council condemn Syrian President Bashar Assad's regime.
"The resolution is a necessary and appropriate step in light of the troubling findings in the IAEA's latest report, including Syria's refusal of the last three years to co-operate with the investigation," chief US envoy to the IAEA Glyn Davis said.
Ministers of the IAEA's 35 governing members have been meeting since Monday to discuss a raft of issues ranging from the disaster at Japan's Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant to a lack of satisfactory cooperation from member states, including Syria and Iran.
Although the vote on taking action against Syria passed, it proved divisive. Seventeen members voted in favour, while six opposed the measure, based on the findings of IAEA chief Yukiya Amano. However, 11 nations abstained and one member was absent from the vote.
China and Russia voted against the recommendation, meaning it could face stiff opposition in the UN Security Council, where those nations hold veto power.
Before the vote, the Russians called the referral "untimely and not objective". They said the evidence against Syria was hypothetical and based on "possible alleged insufficiencies".
The recommendation is the first from the IAEA that is based on an interpretation of evidence gathered against Syria. Mr Amano acknowledged that while the agency did not have "absolute proof", it was solid enough to justify taking action against Damascus.
Mr Amano said that Syria should have declared its Dair Alzour site, which was destroyed by Israeli warplanes in 2007, but was believed to have been capable of producing plutonium for possible use in nuclear weapons. Since 2008, the IAEA has been frustrated in repeated attempts to follow up on further evidence regarding the site.
"Syria's apparent attempt at constructing a secret, undeclared plutonium production reactor ... represents one of the most serious safeguards violations possible," Mr Davis said.