Paris attacks: France wants to unite with the US and Russia to fight Isis
France wants to unite with the US and Russia in a grand coalition dedicated to fighting Islamic State, French president Francois Hollande has said.
The announcement came as authorities worldwide struggled to pinpoint those responsible for the deadliest attacks on France since World War II.
Mr Hollande said: "The faces of the dead people, of the wounded, of the families don't leave my mind."
He spoke after France and many allies observed a minute of silence in honour of the 129 killed and 350 wounded when three teams of IS attackers targeted the national stadium, a rock concert and four nightspots with assault gun fire and suicide bombs on Friday.
"In my determination to combat terrorism, I want France to remain itself. The barbarians who attack France would like to disfigure it. They will not make it change," Mr Hollande declared. "They must never be able to spoil France's soul."
Mr Hollande also said he would present a bill on Wednesday seeking to extend the state of emergency - granting the police and military greater powers of search and arrest, and local governments the right to suspend demonstrations and impose curfews - for another three months.
In neighbouring Belgium, the base for many of the attackers, police surrounded a suspected hideout for a man identified as a driver for the attackers, 26-year-old Salah Abdeslam, but came up empty after charging into the property.
In Paris, officials identified the alleged Belgian mastermind of the attacks, Abdelhamid Abaaoud, who is believed to be beyond reach in Syria.
Earlier on Monday, thousands clasped hands outside some of the bullet-riddled nightspots as children returned to school and city authorities vowed to resume normal life as quickly as possible.
In a powerful symbolic move, the Eiffel Tower reopened to tourists after a two-day shutdown.
As darkness fell it was floodlit in the red, white and blue of the French flag along with a projection of Paris' motto of "tossed but not sunk", suggesting an unsinkable city tossed in the waves.
Mr Hollande said the United States and Russia needed to set aside their policy divisions over Syria and "fight this terrorist army in a single coalition".
He said he hoped to meet soon with US president Barack Obama and Russian leader Vladimir Putin, although he did not specify whether they would all meet together.
As France intensified its air strikes overnight on suspected IS power bases in Syria, police struggled to achieve a breakthrough in their hunt for militants who survived Friday's assaults.
Six blew themselves up with suicide belts while police shot to death a seventh.
Iraqi officials said their intelligence agency suggested that 19 attackers and five back-up activists committed the carnage, an assertion not publicly supported by Western intelligence agencies.
France has issued an arrest warrant for Abdeslam, who was identified as the alleged driver of a rental car that delivered attackers to a rock concert inside a nightclub in which 89 died.
That car, rented by Abdeslam, was found abandoned on Paris' east side with several assault rifles and clips of ammunition still inside.
French border police had stopped him on Saturday but unwittingly allowed him to travel on to Belgium, unaware of an arrest warrant that had been issued in Paris that described him as extremely dangerous.
Belgian police on Monday donned balaclavas and assault rifles as they mounted a tense hourslong standoff outside Abdeslam's suspected hideout in the Brussels district of Molenbeek but made no arrests after storming the residence.
One of Abdeslam's brothers, Brahim, blew himself up outside a Paris restaurant, killing one civilian, during Friday night's attack.
Another brother, Mohamed, was detained by Belgian police but released without charge on Monday.
His lawyer, Nathalie Gallant, said that, unlike his two brothers, Mohammed Abdeslam "didn't make the same life choice" and had not been "tempted into jihadism".
Across France, police utilising emergency powers said they raided 168 properties and arrested 127 people, 104 of whom were placed under house arrest, in search of members of a suspected sleeper cell of Islamic State activists.
French interior minister Bernard Cazeneuve said police seized a Kalashnikov assault rifle and other weapons during the overnight raids.
In hopes of killing Islamic State organisers and trainees, France overnight launched its heaviest air strikes yet on the city of Raqqa, the group's de-facto capital in Syria.
French authorities said Sunday night's bombings destroyed a jihadi training camp and munitions dump.
The Defence Ministry said that 12 aircraft based in Jordan and the Persian Gulf dropped a total of 20 bombs.
It called the operation the largest attack by French air power since France joined the US-led coalition in targeting suspected IS power bases in Syria in September.
In Paris, harrowing accounts of survival continued to emerge, particularly from the Bataclan theatre, where three attackers shot into the fleeing crowd.
Two then detonated suicide vests as police stormed the building, fatally shooting the third attacker.
Julien Pearce, a journalist at Europe 1 radio who escaped by crawling onto the Bataclan stage, said he got a good look at one attacker who appeared "very young".
"That's what struck me: his childish face, very determined, cold, calm, frightening," Mr Pearce said.
Paris remains on edge amid three days of official mourning. French troops have deployed by the thousands in support of police to restore a sense of security in one of the world's most visited cities.
Barack Obama: Paris attacks terrible setback in fight against Islamic State
US president Barack Obama said the Paris terror attacks were a "terrible and sickening setback" in the fight against Islamic State, but showed no indication of substantially changing his approach to defeating the group.
Closing two days of talks with world leaders in Turkey, Mr Obama forcefully dismissed calls from critics - including some Republican presidential candidates - to send US ground troops into Syria.
Co Down photographer Tom McGeehan says the attack is not enough to make him leave Paris
He told BBC Good Morning Ulster: "I tried my best to stay with close friends and people who were affected to try and keep a bit of optistm.
"I think especially coming from the background of Belfast we have unfortunately grown accustomed to dealing with extreme violence
"This isn't enough to make me leave it's just enough to make me really cherish the people I know here."
"There was a pile of bad guys" - Coleraine Dad tells young children why Disneyland was closed
John Lynn from Coleraine travelled to Disneyland Paris with his family on Friday night.
He then had to explain to his young children why the attraction had been closed.
He told Good Morning Ulster: "How do you explain it to kids? I just basically said there was a pile of bad guys and something had happened in Paris and that's why Disneyland was closed."
Two facing terrorism charges
Two men arrested after the Paris attacks are being held on terrorism charges, Belgian federal prosecutors said.
A statement from the prosecutors office said the pair were charged "with a terrorist act and participation in the activities of a terrorist group".
The five others detained at the weekend were freed without charge.
Islamic State release video threatening attacks on countries taking part in Syria airstrikes
Islamic State has reportedly released a video threatening attacks on the US and other countries taking part in airstrikes in Syria.
It has not yet been possible to verify the authenticity of the video which purports to be that of IS fighters in the Iraqi province of Salahuddine, north of Baghdad, Sky News has reported.
The video says: "We say to the states that take part in the crusader campaign that, by God, you will have a day God willing, like France's and by God, as we struck France in the centre of its abode in Paris, then we swear that we will strike America at its centre in Washington," the video said.
"I say to the European countries that we are coming, coming with booby traps and explosives, coming with explosive belts and (gun) silencers and you will be unable to stop us because today we are much stronger than before."
Meanwhile in response to the attacks Anonymous have declared "war" on Isis.
In a video it said: "Anonymous from all over the world will hunt you down.
"You should know that we will find you and we will not let you go.
“We will launch the biggest operation ever against you.
“Expect massive cyber attacks. War is declared. Get prepared.
“The French people are stronger than you and will come out of this atrocity even stronger.”
Bataclan concert hall owners: No words to express our sorrow
The owners of the Bataclan concert hall in Paris have said there are "no words" to express their sorrow as they thanked people for the support they had received since Friday's massacre.
Eighty-nine music fans were killed and more than 100 injured by gunmen who fired indiscriminately at the crowd during a concert by American rock band Eagles Of Death Metal.
As the terrorists held people hostage, armed French police stormed the building and shot one dead, while two others blew themselves up using suicide vests. Another gunman died nearby.
In a statement in French, posted on Twitter, they said: "Dear friends, there are no words to express our sorrow.
Mother of Paris suicide bomber claims son 'did not mean to kill anyone'
The mother of one of the Paris suicide bombers has claimed her son “did not mean to kill anyone”, as his family said that he may have blown himself up because of stress.
Ibrahim Abdeslam, 31, detonated a suicide vest outside the Comptoir Voltaire café, yards from the Bataclan concert hall where more than 80 people died on Friday night.
Abdeslam was one of three brothers, from Belgium, being suspected of being linked to the attacks which killed 129 people.
Salah Abdeslam, 26, became France's most wanted man after being stopped and let go by police.
The third brother, Mohamed Abdeslam, a former council worker, was arrested in Molenbeek in western Brussels, a day after the attacks in the French capital.
Speaking outside the family home in the suburb of Molenbeek, in Western Brussels, the trio’s mother told Het Laatste Nieuws that the family were sure that Ibrahim did not plan to kill anyone and may have blown himself up by accident.
Brother of Paris suicide attacker released
One of the brothers of a suicide bomber involved in the Paris terror attacks has been released, his lawyer said.
Mohamed Abdeslam, who had been arrested over the weekend, is the brother of Brahim Abdeslam who died when he detonated his suicide vest on Friday.
Another brother, Salah Abdeslam, is the object of a massive manhunt.
Mohamed Abdeslam's lawyer Nathalie Gallant told the RTL network that her client "hadn't made the same choice of life".
Major manhunt operation in Belgium
A major police operation is underway in Belgium amid a manhunt for a suspect of the Paris attacks described as France's most wanted man.
The French interior minister has said that a total of 168 locations across France have been raided overnight.
Bernard Cazeneuve said that 104 people have been placed under house arrest in the past 48 hours.
Heavily armed police are currently in the Brussels neighbourhood of Molenbeek amid a manhunt for Salah Abdeslam.
There has been conflicting reports with some suggesting he has already been arrested by police - this has yet to be confirmed.
Police arrested three suspects in Molenbeek on Saturday and continued house searches. The special action began early on Monday.
Neighbours were told to stay away from the street where masked police have sealed off a section.
A Belgian man had earlier been identified as the suspected mastermind of the attacks.
The Belgian prosecuter has told AFP that five of the seven suspects have been released including Mohammed Abdeslam the brother of suspect suicide bomber Ibrahim Abdeslam.
A spokesman for the prosecutor’s office said Mohammed Abdeslam had been released without charge.
Minute of silence held across Europe
Three hundred people gathered at the Place de Republique at midday.
At the end of the silence the crowd burst into applause - there were similar scenes at neighbouring locations where 129 people were killed including the Bataclan Theatre.
In Belfast at 11am a minute's silence was held across the country.
The Lord Mayor of Belfast, Arder Carson, and Honorary French Consulate, Regine McCullough, were among those taking part in the tribute.
Former Belfast priest: You didn’t know where the next shot was going to be fired
A former Belfast priest who is stationed in Paris has described the horror of the terror attacks and said panic gripped the streets of the French capital.
Father Aidan Troy, from Wicklow, for many years was based at Holy Cross Church in Ardoyne.
He is now the parish priest in St Joseph’s Catholic Church, near the Arc de Triomphe in Paris, said that he was with three French families for a meal in a house in the city when news of the attacks broke.
Young Irishman praised for shielding girlfriend during concert hall attack
A young Irishman who was hit during the terror attack on the Bataclan rock venue has been hailed a hero for protecting his girlfriend and others during the shooting.
The man was at the Eagles of Death Metal gig in Paris with his girlfriend when gunmen opened fire on the crowd.
He was shot at point-blank range with a Kalashnikov assault rifle when the concert of the American rock band came under siege.
The man suffered severe trauma to the leg from the impact of the high-velocity bullet.
But it is understood that he lay across his partner in a bid to save her from the hail of bullets during the terrifying ordeal.
The face of alleged mastermind behind massacre
This is the face of Belgian-born Abdelhamid Abaaoud, the alleged mastermind of the Paris attacks which killed more than 100 people in a rampage.
Abaaoud allegedly oversaw the attack and funded it.
RTL radio in France reported that 27-year-old Abaaoud is “one of the most active Isis executioners” in Syria.
Abdelhamid Abaaoud is also believed to be linked to thwarted attacks on a Paris-bound high-speed train and a church in the Paris area, an official said.
Police arrest suspect Salah Abdeslam, reports
Belgian broadcaster RTL reports that police have arrested Salah Abdeslam, suspected of being involved in the Paris attacks, in the Belgian suburb of Molenbeek.
Abdeslam was the subject of the French police wanted order.
It has not yet been confirmed.
Suspected attackers - what we know so far
Belgian Abdelhamid Abaaoud was named by a French official as the suspected mastermind of the Paris attacks. The official said he has been linked to thwarted attacks on a Paris-bound high-speed train and a church in the Paris area.
Samy Amimour was one of the suicide bombers who blew himself up at the Bataclan music hall, the Paris prosecutor's office said. A 28-year-old Frenchman, he was known to French intelligence services. He was charged with terror offences in 2012 and was placed under judicial supervision. But he later disappeared and an international arrest warrant was issued for him. Three of his relatives were arrested early today, prosecutors said.
A suicide bomber who blew himself up outside the Stade de France, the country's national sports stadium, was found with a Syrian passport bearing the name Ahmad Al Mohammad. The 25-year-old was born in Idlib, a city in north-west Syria, and the Paris prosecutor's office said fingerprints from the attacker match those of a person who travelled through Greece last month.
Brahim Abdeslam, Salah's elder brother, was named by a judicial source in France as one of the attackers. The 31-year-old was identified by police as the suicide bomber who blew himself up on Boulevard Voltaire.
Another suicide bomber was named as 20-year-old Bilal Hadfi, one of three who attacked the Stade de France. He is said to have fought with Islamic State in Syria.
Ismael Mostefai, 29, was identified as another attacker. Previously flagged for links to Islamic radicalism, he had been named by police after being identified through remains found at the Bataclan music hall.
Silence across the UK
A one minute silence is being held in the UK at 11am today while France and the rest of Europe pause at noon local time.
A book of condolence has opened at Belfast City Hall for victims of the attacks.
The Northern Ireland Assembly and the Irish Parliament will pause at 11.
Military bases across Northern Irleand will remember the victims of the Paris attacks at 11am. This includes Thiepval Barracks in Lisburn, Palace Barracks in Holywood and also at the Training Bases in Ballykinler, County Down and Magilligan, County Londonderry as well as at reserve bases.
International manhunt continues for France's 'most wanted man'
An international manhunt continues for a suspect linked to the Paris attacks as the UK are preparing to recruit almost 2,000 more spies to counter the Islamic State threat.
Police across Europe are searching for Salah Abdeslam, 26, who rented a car used to carry gunmen to the Bataclan music venue in Paris which became the scene of a massacre.
Britons have been urged to join a Europe-wide minute's silence at 11am to remember the 129 people killed in the rampage in the French capital.
David Cameron will join world leaders at the G20 summit in Turkey in observing the silence in remembrance of the victims.
Police let suspect go
The French authorities missed an opportunity to detain their target Abdeslam just hours after the carnage in Paris when he was questioned and released on Saturday morning.
Officers had Abdeslam in their grasp when they stopped the car carrying him and two other men near the Belgian border.
Abdeslam is one of three brothers suspected of involvement in the Paris attacks.
Another has been named as Brahim. The 31 year-old suicide bomber detonated his explosive vest at the Bataclan on Boulevard Voltaire.
A third brother was arrested in Belgium.
The Independent reports that prosecutors have confirmed the identity of the fourth named suicide bomber. He is Samy Amimour, born in 1987 in Paris, living in Drancy. Amimour was one of the suicide bombers at the Bataclan theatre.
He was reportedly known to security services following a terror case in 2012.
In a disclosure that will deepen concerns over possible intelligence failures, officials revealed that Amimour had been charged in a terror probe in 2012 over claims he planned to travel to Yemen.
The fifth named attacker is Ahmad Al Mohammad who blew himself up at the Stade de France. . He was born on 10 September 1990 in Idlib, Syria, if the passport found near his body was authentic
France launches air strikes on Syria
IS - also known as Isil and Daesh - has claimed responsibility for the Paris atrocities which killed at least 129 people and French forces struck back with a massive bombardment of the jihadist group's stronghold in Raqqa, Syria.
Twelve aircraft, including 10 fighter jets, dropped 20 bombs, destroying a jihadi training camp and a munitions dump in Raqqa, where Iraqi intelligence officials claimed the attacks on Paris were planned.
British police and spies are working closely with counterparts in France and Belgium to identify and pursue those behind the Paris massacre.
Rocket launcher found in raids across five locations in France
Police have seized a rocket launcher as they carried out raids in five locations Bobigny and Saint-Denis in Paris, Toulouse, Grenoble and Jeumont.
French PM Manuel Valls told radio station RTL that more than 150 searches have taken place across the country in the wake of terror attacks in Paris on Friday.
Sixty searches in Lille, Strasbourg, Lyon, Grenoble, Marseille and Toulouse resulted in the rocket launcher, flak jackets, 15 hand guns and eight other "weapons of war" being seized, according to Le Figaro.
Security has been beefed up in UK cities and ports as Britons were urged to remain vigilant, although the terror threat level has not been changed from the second-highest "severe" rating.
Seven terrorist attacks thwarted in the last six months
Prime Minister David Cameron has revealed that seven terrorist attacks have been thwarted in the last six months. He made the revelation as he announced a 15% increase in the 12,700-strong staff of the security and intelligence agencies MI5, MI6 and GCHQ with the recruitment of an additional 1,900 personnel.
The security and intelligence services will receive a major funding boost in response to the IS threat, which has been blamed for the bombing of a Russian airliner in Egypt and the Paris attack in recent weeks.
Spending on aviation security will increase to at least double the current £9 million a year.
The Prime Minister said the UK was engaged in a "generational struggle" against extremist terror. The additional spending will help "combat those who would destroy us and our values" and allow Britons to "continue with our way of life we hold so dear".
More details have emerged about the IS attack which was the worst terrorist outrage in Europe for more than a decade, leaving at least 129 dead and 350 wounded.
- Prosecutors believe three teams of terrorists carried out the co-ordinated attacks
- As many as three of the seven suicide terrorists killed on Friday night were French. Two were Frenchmen living in Brussels
- Bilal Hadfi has been named as one of the assailants and is said to have fought with IS in Syria. The 20-year-old, was identified by police as one of the three suicide bombers at the Stade de France.
- Three Kalashnikov assault rifles were discovered inside the Seat car used in the attacks which was found in the suburb of Montreuil, four miles east of Paris
- One of the attackers was identified as 29-year-old Frenchman Ismael Mostefai, who had been flagged for links to Islamic radicalism
- Seven people have been arrested in Belgium and six in France in connection with the killings, including Mostefai's father and brother. More arrests were reported by French media overnight in Grenoble, in the south-east of the country
French media reported there had been arrests in Grenoble, in south-eastern France, where anti-terror officers had recovered firearms and cash.
At least one of the men arrested in Belgium was a French national.
It has been reported that one of the attackers passed through Europe as a refugee using a Syrian passport to enter Greece. The passport was also registered in Serbia and Croatia. The name on the passport was Ahmad Almohammad, according to reports
The only British fatality confirmed so far is Nick Alexander, 36, from Colchester, who was selling merchandise for rock group Eagles of Death Metal when their gig at the Bataclan was targeted.
Video has emerged of the moment the terrorists attacked, firing repeatedly at fans as band members fled the stage.
The UK's ambassador in Paris, Peter Ricketts, laid flowers at an impromptu shrine outside the venue today, describing it as "intensely moving".
In a sign of the continued tension in Paris, the Place de la Republique - where huge crowds had gathered - was suddenly evacuated with people fleeing in terror.
The square, where Channel 4 News was broadcasting live at the time, was reopened after it was confirmed the panic was the result of a false alarm.
Speaking from the G20 summit in Turkey, Mr Cameron said Europe would be safer if the threat from IS - also known as Isil - was dealt with.
He said: "It's become even more clear that our safety and security depends on degrading and ultimately destroying Isil whether it's in Iraq or Syria.
"We're playing a huge role in that already in Iraq. Others are taking action in Syria which we both support and enable, but we've got to keep on making the case that we will be safer in the UK, in France, right across Europe if we destroy this death cult once and for all."
It has emerged Iraqi intelligence warned countries in the US-led coalition against IS, including France, of an imminent assault the day before the Paris attacks.
But the Iraqi dispatch provided no details on when or where the attack would take place, and a senior French security official described it as the kind of warning French intelligence gets "all the time" and "every day".
From Beirut to Sousse: Paris attacks the latest in a string of terrorist massacres around the world
The terror that unfolded in Paris has been described as the worst violence to hit France since the Second World War.
Terrorists have used different methods to inflict destruction around the world in recent years. Here are some of the most horrific attacks in recent times:
On Thursday, 41 people were killed and at least 239 wounded in two suicide bombings in the deadliest bombing in the capital since the end of Lebanon's civil war in 1990.
The so-called slamic State (IS) militant group claimed responsibility. Hezbollah forces are currently fighting Isis in neighbouring Syria.
2,000 slaughtered in Nigeria
As the world's media coverage focused on the Charlie Hebo attacks in Paris in January this year another terror attack was unfolding , more than 2000 Nigerians were reported to have been killed by Islamist militants Boko Haram.
The attack in Baga in the north-eastern state of Borno was described by Amnesty International as the group's 'deadliest massacre'. Local authorities said they had given up counting the bodies as more than 30,000 were forced to flee their homes.
Kenya school attacks
147 people were murdered and at least 79 injured in an attack by al-Shabab on Garissa University, Kenya in April.
It was the deadliest assault yet by the Islamist group. Using explosives to blast away the main gate, Islamist militants forced their way into the campus of Garissa University College at 5.30am, shooting dead a security guard before storming a hostel.
As with the Baga attacks, some users on social media questioned the media coverage of this attack and subsequent social media response. Some posts have asked where were Kenyan flag filters on Facebook following this attack.
"When 147 Kenyans were murdered, I didn’t see anybody changing their profile pic," said one user this morning.
Anders Behring Breivik
In 2011 77 people were killed by right-wing extremist Anders Behring Breivik in Norway.
Breivik, who is serving a 21-year prison sentence, confessed to the bomb attack at government headquarters that killed eight people and a shooting rampage at a youth camp on Utoya island where he murdered 69 others.
On August 15, 1998, 29 victims - who included a woman pregnant with twins - died after a dissident republican car bomb detonated in Omagh town centre on a busy Saturday afternoon.
It was the single bloodiest terrorist attack in the history of the Northern Ireland Troubles and came only months after the signing of the historic Good Friday Agreement.
More than 200 were injured when the 500lb car bomb, planted by the Real IRA, ripped through the Co Tyrone market town.
Nearly 3,000 people, including 67 Britons, were killed after Islamist extremists hijacked passenger jets and flew them into New York's World Trade Centre twin towers and the Pentagon in Washington DC on September 11, 2001.
The world watched in horror as the hijacked planes emerged from a clear blue sky to strike at the heart of one of the world's greatest cities.
Televised live around the globe to a shocked audience of billions, the 9/11 attacks were meticulously planned by Islamist fanatics to kill as many people and gain as much publicity as possible.
A total of 202 people, including 28 Britons, were killed on October 12, 2002 and more than 204 injured when the al Qaida-linked Jemaah Islamiyah group detonated bombs at two packed Bali nightspots.
During the attack three bombs detonated - a backpack carried by a suicide bomber and a car bomb which both devastated Paddy's Pub and the Sari Club opposite, followed by a third device outside the US consulate in Denpasar.
Various members of Jemaah Islamiyah were convicted in relation to the bombings. Three - Imam Samudra, Amrozi Nurhasyim and Huda bin Abdul Haq - were executed by firing squad in November 2008.
Madrid train bombings
The whole of Spain was in mourning when more than 190 people were killed in the Madrid train bombs on March 11, 2004.
The attacks took place exactly two-and-a-half years after September 11 and were Europe's worst terrorist atrocity since the 1988 Lockerbie plane bombing.
London-based Arabic language Al Quds newspaper said it received an e-mail from the Brigade of Abu Hafs al-Masri, who claimed its ''death squad'' had penetrated ''one of the pillars of the crusader alliance''.
On July 7, 2005, 52 people were murdered and hundreds more injured when four suicide bombers attacked London's transport network.
Twenty-six died in the bombing at Russell Square on the Piccadilly line, six in the bombing at Edgware Road on the Circle line, seven in the bombing at Aldgate on the Circle line, and 13 in the bombing on the bus at Tavistock Square.
A fortnight later, another four would-be suicide bombers launched failed attacks on the Tube and a bus, leading police marksmen to kill innocent Brazilian Jean Charles de Menezes.
Often called India's 9/11, the Mumbai attacks in 2008 saw 10 gunmen blaze through the country's financial capital, killing more than 160 people.
Indian authorities took back control of Mumbai early on the morning on November 29 after a three-day siege across the city.
Security services and senior police in the UK have repeatedly highlighted the risk of a Mumbai-style roaming gun massacre, and earlier this year police carried out a simulated terror attack in the capital to test the emergency response to such a strike.
Fusilier Lee Rigby, 25, from Middleton in Greater Manchester, was killed outside barracks in Woolwich, south east London, on May 22, 2013 by two Islamic extremists.
The murder sparked shock across the country after the father-of-one was run over with a car and then hacked to death by British Muslim converts Michael Adebolajo and Michael Adebowale.
Following an Old Bailey trial, Adebolajo was handed a whole-life prison term and Adebowale was jailed for a minimum of 45 years.
Paris was rocked by the Charlie Hebdo atrocity on January 7 this year, when 12 people were killed after gunmen stormed the offices of the satirical magazine.
The sense of panic heightened when there was a subsequent attack on a Kosher supermarket, and the incidents triggered worldwide outrage.
Since then there have been a number of more minor strikes or attempts in France. In one, three Americans and a Briton overpowered a heavily-armed gunman on a train from Amsterdam to Paris.
Terror group Islamic State claimed responsibility for the Sousse attack in June, in which 30 Britons were among 38 tourists killed.
Gunman Seifeddine Rezgui opened fire on the holidaymakers on a beach in the Tunisian holiday resort.
Foreign Minister Tobias Ellwood has described the Sousse tragedy as the ''most significant terrorist attack'' on Britons since July 7, 2005.
Life under Isis
The Paris terror attacks have deepened the anti-migrant mood in Central Europe and are threatening to create an atmosphere even less welcoming for those fleeing war in the Middle East.
On the Slovenian-Austrian border, the armies of both nations strip-searched migrants on their westward march amid heightened security over the weekend, causing large numbers to build up at a refugee camp.
The shifting mood could threaten European efforts to find unity on the migration crisis.
A new anti-migrant government in Poland already is casting doubt on whether it will take all 7,000 refugees the previous government agreed to accept.
Poland, Hungary and other countries across the region - many of them multicultural lands in the past - have been largely mono-ethnic Christian societies since the mass killings and expulsions of World War II.
Resistance there has been especially stiff towards Muslims, who are largely seen as threats to national identity.
Many of these nations faced threats to their very nationhood in the past, with Poland wiped off the map in the 19th century, Hungary losing two-thirds of its territory after World War I, and nations across the region subjected to Soviet control during the Cold War - all factors seen as contributing to anxieties over nationhood.
That one of the suicide bombers appears to be a Syrian who passed through Greece in October is also deepening a belief among many that the refugees should be seen as potential terrorists.
"All of Europe should now be opposed to the migrants," said Cristian Albu, a legal expert in Romania. "We have to prevent what happened in Paris happening elsewhere."
Even some of the migrants themselves are worried about the security gaps that have come with the largest movement of refugees across European borders since World War II.
Some say they fear that the same Islamic State extremists they are fleeing will infiltrate the masses of migrants, carry out more attacks and create greater distrust of legitimate asylum-seekers.
"Europe made a big mistake. They should not allow all the people," said Emile Tarabeh, a customs officer from Syria at a migrant centre in Presevo, Serbia, who is hoping to reach Sweden. "It will be more difficult now" for the real refugees, he said.
Joanna Fomina, a migration expert at the Polish Academy of Sciences, said expressions of anti-Muslim sentiment have exploded online since the Paris attacks, with some people essentially saying "I told you so" or saying Muslims should be gassed liked Jews during the Holocaust.
She said: "This attack will increase public and political polarisation over the issue of refugees, convincing those who are already prejudiced that their fears are well-grounded.
"We also can expect more Euroscepticism - negative attitudes towards the EU and migration go hand in hand."
Hungarian prime minister Viktor Orban, who has taken a prominent anti-migrant stance, criticized the EU as "adrift".
"It is weak, uncertain and paralysed," he told the Parliament in Budapest. "In Brussels they continue to say that immigration is good, even while we get new evidence every day that immigration is a bad thing."
Recalling that Hungary been criticised as inhumane for building fences on its borders to keep migrants out, Mr Orban said: "But the question is: What is more humane? To close the borders to illegal border-crossers or put the lives of innocent European citizens at risk?"
He said it is "bad even to think about how many terrorists may have gone through the territory of our country". Nearly 400,000 migrants passed through Hungary this year.
"We don't think that everyone who comes from there is a terrorist, but we don't know," Mr Orban said.
"No one can say how many terrorists have arrived among the migrants until now, how many are already here and how many are arriving day by day."
In Poland, the right-wing government of Prime Minister Beata Szydlo was sworn in on Monday. Her Law and Justice party won a decisive victory in an election last month, and analysts believe it gained support from its anti-migrant statements.
During the campaign, party leader Jaroslaw Kaczynski warned that migrants are carrying "parasites and protozoa" and other diseases that could harm native Europeans.
Critics likened those words to the kind of language Adolf Hitler used against the Jews.
Since Friday, members of the government have indicated that they will treat asylum-seekers as possible security threats, possibly not fulfilling the agreement to accept 7,000.
"Every shadow, every doubt regarding their past will make their asylum application automatically rejected," Poland's new foreign minister, Witold Waszczykowski, said over the weekend.
He and other government members support the idea of sending humanitarian aid to the Syrian refugees in Turkey, Jordan and Lebanon - but not letting them into Europe.
In an interview on Polish state television late on Sunday, Mr Waszczykowski also proposed helping Syrian arrivals in Europe form an army that could invade Syria.
"The tens of thousands of young Syrians who jump out of the rubber rafts and don't ask for water, food or clothes but ask where they can charge their mobile phones could, with our help, fight to get their country back," he said.