Police used tear gas and rubber bullets to scatter the protesters in Rio and arrested at least 10 people.
It was one of more than 100 planned anti-government protests across Brazil on Saturday.
In the capital Brasilia, about 1,000 protesters gathered peacefully in front of congress.
The protests are widespread but not nearly as large as massive demonstrations that sprang up in June.
Brazilians are protesting against corruption and poor public services despite a heavy tax burden.
Brazil's national football team plays a match later against Australia. That is expected to draw protesters angered by the money spent to refurbish stadiums for next year's World Cup.
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