Belfast Telegraph

Wednesday 20 August 2014

Restart of Large Hadron Collider delayed yet again

View of the LHC (large hadron collider) in its tunnel at CERN (European particle physics laboratory) near Geneva, Switzerland, Thursday, May 31, 2007. The LHC is a 27-kilometre-long underground ring of superconducting magnets housed in this pipe-like structure or cryostat. The cryostat is cooled by liquid helium to keep it at an operating temperature just above absolute zero. It will accelerate two counter-rotating beam of protons to an energy of 7 tera electron volts (TeV) and then bring them to collide head on. Several detectors are being built around the LHC to detect the various particles produced by the collision. A pilot run of the LHC is scheduled for summer 2007. (KEYSTONE/Martial Trezzini)
**ADVANCE FOR SUNDAY, JUNE 29--FILE** In this March 22, 2007 file photo, the magnet core of the world's largest superconducting solenoid magnet (CMS, Compact Muon Solenoid) at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN)'s Large Hadron Collider (LHC) particle accelerator, which is scheduled to switch on in November 2007, in Geneva, Switzerland. Some 2000 scientists from 155 institutes in 36 countries are working together to build the CMS particle detector. (AP Photo/Keystone, Martial Trezzini, file)
Spectators look at the ATLAS detector construction (a Toroidal LHC Apparatus) at the CERN (Centre Europeen de Recherche Nucleaire) near Geneva, Switzerland, Thursday, May 31, 2007. The detector will be placed around the large hadron collider (LHC), CERN's highest energy particle accelerator. ATLAS is a general-purpose detector designed to measure the broadest possible range of particles and physical processes that could result from the collision of the proton beams within the LHC. A pilot run of the LHC is scheduled for summer 2007. (KEYSTONE/Martial Trezzini)

Repairs to two small helium leaks in the world's largest atom smasher, the Large Hadron Collider, will delay the restart of the giant machine another month until November, a spokesman for the operator said.

James Gillies said an additional setback to the timing could result if some other problem is found, but the European Organisation for Nuclear Research is taking pains to make sure it avoids another major shutdown like the electrical failure of Sept. 19.



"Essentially what's happening is we're proceeding with extreme caution," Gillies said. "We have to be absolutely certain that when we switch on this time, it stays switched on."



The organisation, which is known as CERN, has nearly finished examining the 10,000 electrical interconnections like the one that failed in September.



Originally CERN said it expected to start test collisions in April, but that start up date has been pushed back several times already, most recently to October.



"Decisions will be taken as to whether there are more that need repairing or not within the next couple of weeks, and when we know that, we will be in a position to be a little bit more definitive about what we plan to do for the rest of the year," Gillies said.



If a November start holds, it will still take until December for the accelerator in a 27-kilometre circular tunnel under the Swiss-French border to start producing collisions of subatomic particles.



Only then will physicists be able to probe deeper into the make-up of matter.



They hope the fragments that come off the collisions will show on a tiny scale what happened one-trillionth of a second after the so-called Big Bang, which many scientists theorise was the massive explosion that formed the universe. The theory holds that the universe was rapidly cooling at that stage and matter was changing quickly.



The leaks currently being repaired were found in the system that uses liquid helium to bring the temperature inside the accelerator to near absolute zero, colder than outer space.



That low temperature makes it possible to use the massive superconducting electromagnets that control the beams of particles that will fly in both directions around the accelerator at near the speed of light until the scientists make them collide.



CERN expects repairs and additional safety systems to cost about $37 million over the course of several years, covered by the organisation's budget. The overall Large Hadron Collider project cost $10 billion.

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