A bill that would ban adoption of Russian children by Americans has been passed by the lower house of Russia's parliament.
The move sends the controversial legislation a step closer to President Vladimir Putin's desk.
Mr Putin has not said whether he will sign the measure into law if it passes its next stage of being approved by the upper house of parliament.
Some top government officials including the foreign minister and the education minister have spoken flatly against the bill, but it received overwhelming approval in its third reading in the State Duma, passing by a majority of more than 400.
The adoption ban is one part of a larger measure retaliating against a recently signed US law that calls for sanctions against Russians deemed to be human rights violators.