Chinese and Russian intelligence services and corporate hackers are using cyber attacks to steal hi-tech American research and development data, a US government report has said.
US officials have complained quietly for years about cyber attacks originating from China but this report offers the first such detailed public accusations from US officials.
According to the report the stolen information is helping to build their own economies and cyber attacks by foreign governments represent a "persistent threat to US economic security".
The report includes information from the 14 US spy agencies, as well as from academics and other experts.
It also said China and Russia will remain aggressive and capable collectors of sensitive US economic information and technologies.