US author Joe McGinniss dies
Joe McGinniss, a US author and reporter who skewered the marketing of Richard Nixon in The Selling Of the President 1968 has died at the age of 71.
McGinniss also tracked his own personal journey from sympathiser to scourge of convicted killer Jeffrey MacDonald in the blockbuster Fatal Vision.
The author announced last year that he had been diagnosed with inoperable prostate cancer. He died from complications related to his disease at UMass Memorial Medical Centre in Worcester, Massachusetts.
Few journalists of his time so intrepidly pursued a story, burned so many bridges or more memorably placed themselves in the narrative, whether insisting on the guilt of MacDonald after seemingly befriending him or moving next door to Sarah Palin's house for an unauthorised biography of the former Alaska governor and Republican vice presidential candidate.
The tall, talkative McGinniss had early dreams of becoming a sports reporter and wrote books about football, horse racing and travel, but he was best known for two works that became touchstones in their respective genres. In both cases, he had become fascinated by the difference between public image and private reality.
McGinniss was a columnist for the Philadelphia Inquirer in 1968 when an advertising man told him he was joining Hubert Humphrey's presidential campaign. Intrigued that candidates had advertising teams, McGinniss was inspired to write a book and tried to get access to Humphrey. The Democrat turned him down, but, according to McGinniss, Nixon aide Leonard Garment allowed him in, one of the last times the ever-suspicious Nixon would permit a journalist so much time around him.
Mr Garment and other Nixon aides were apparently unaware, or unconcerned, that McGinniss's heart was very much with the anti-war agitators the candidate so despised.
The Republican's victory that autumn capped a once-unthinkable comeback for the former vice president, who had declared six years earlier that he was through with politics. Having lost the 1960 election in part because of his pale, sweaty appearance during his first debate with John F Kennedy and aware of his reputation as a partisan willing to play dirty, Nixon had restricted his public outings and presented himself as a new and more mature candidate.
McGinniss was far from the only writer to notice Nixon's reinvention, but few offered such raw and unflattering details. The Selling Of The President was a sneering rebuttal to Theodore H White's stately Making Of The President campaign books. It revealed Nixon aides, including a young Roger Ailes, disparaging vice president candidate Spiro Agnew; drafting memos on how to fix Nixon's "cold" image and debating which black man - only one would be permitted - was right for participating in a televised panel discussion.
The Selling Of The President was published in 1969, spent months on The New York Times bestseller list and made McGinniss an eager media star. He quit the Inquirer and followed more personal interests. He wrote a novel, The Dream Team, and the idiosyncratic Heroes, a memoir that told of the break-up of his first marriage and romance with his eventual second wife, Nancy Doherty.
In 1979, he was a columnist for the Los Angeles Herald-Examiner when an argument without end was born: McGinniss was approached by MacDonald, a fellow California resident, about a possible book on the 1970 murders for which the physician and former Green Beret was being charged.
In February 1970, MacDonald's pregnant wife and two small children were stabbed and beaten to death at the family's home in Fort Bragg, North Carolina. The date, location and identities of the victims are virtually the only facts of the case not in dispute.
MacDonald, who sustained a punctured lung and minor injuries, insisted that the house was overrun by a gang of drug-crazed hippies who chanted slogans such as "Acid is groovy" and spelled "PIG" in blood on a bedroom wall, a murderous rampage seemingly inspired by the then-recent Charles Manson murders.
But investigators suspected otherwise, believing that MacDonald killed his family and arranged the apartment to make it appear others had committed the crime. MacDonald was initially cleared of charges, then indicted, then finally brought to trial in 1979. He was found guilty and sentenced to three consecutive life terms.
Fatal Vision, published in 1983, became one of the most widely read and contested true crime books in history. McGinniss wrote not just of the case but of his own conclusions. He had at first found MacDonald charming and sincere but came to believe that he was a sociopath who had committed the killings in a frenzied state brought on by diet pills.
McGinniss's findings were not welcomed by MacDonald or by some of his fellow journalists. MacDonald sued in 1987, alleging that McGinness tricked him by pretending to believe in his innocence, and he received an out-of-court settlement of 325,000 dollars. New Yorker writer Janet Malcolm cited McGinniss as a prime case of the reporter as a "kind of confidence man, preying on people's vanity, ignorance, or loneliness, gaining their trust and betraying them without remorse".
McGinniss wrote in his defence: "The attempt to manipulate through 'cons and lies' was - it seems clear to me now in retrospect - something Jeffrey MacDonald engaged in with me. Appearance of the book was forceful proof he had not succeeded. That this would provoke a response more intense than the normal disappointment of irritation of a subject when he finds the portrayal of him in print not all he had allowed himself to hope for seems to me a function of - and a graphic illustration of - MacDonald's frame of mind."
While MacDonald remained in prison, insisting on his innocence, the case was revisited in books, essays and opinion pieces. Jerry Allen Potter and Fred Bost defended MacDonald in Fatal Justice, published in 1997. Film-maker Errol Morris, a MacDonald backer, came out with the book A Wilderness Of Error: The Trials Of Jeffrey MacDonald in 2012.
McGinniss hoped to have the last word with the e-book Final Vision.
"Jeffrey MacDonald was convicted of the murders of his wife and two young daughters in 1979," McGinniss said in 2012. "In all the years since, every court that has considered the case - including the United States Supreme Court - has upheld that verdict in every respect. MacDonald is guilty not simply beyond a reasonable doubt, but beyond any doubt. No amount of speculation, conjecture and innuendo can change that."