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Facebook fake news did not influence US election: Mark Zuckerberg

Published 11/11/2016

Facebook's Mark Zuckerberg
Facebook's Mark Zuckerberg

Facebook founder and CEO Mark Zuckerberg has hit back at "crazy" claims that fake news posted on the platform contributed to the election of Donald Trump to the White House.

Several articles published following the shock result have pointed the finger at social networks for failing to tackle biased and factually incorrect stories, suggesting that the increase in people receiving their news from social platforms had influenced the result.

But speaking at a technology conference broadcast live on his Facebook page, Mr Zuckerberg said: "Personally, I think the idea that fake news on Facebook - of which it's a very small amount of the content - influenced the election in any way is a pretty crazy idea."

He added: "Part of what I think is going on here is that people are trying to understand the result of the election. But I do think there is a certain profound lack of empathy in asserting that the only reason that someone could have voted the way they did is because they saw some fake news.

"If you believe that, then I don't think you have internalised the message that Trump supporters are trying to send in this election."

According to data from the Reuters Institute, almost half (46%) of people in the US use social media for news every week - up from 26% three years ago.

Facebook has come in for particular criticism in the past year for its trending module, which is reported to have promoted several bogus news stories since removing human curators and instead relying on automation.

While some of these articles have been conservative in nature, not all are so: one popular meme that has circulated throughout the US election campaign contains false quotes attributed to the president-elect.

In it, he is wrongly said to have called Republican voters "the dumbest group of voters in the country".

Nic Newman, a digital strategist and research associate at the Reuters Institute, said that "for many people, Facebook is now the front page of the internet and here news is selected by an algorithm not an editor - with Mark Zuckerberg as editor in chief".

US President Barack Obama shakes hands as he meets with Republican President-elect Donald Trump on transition planning in the Oval Office at the White House on November 10, 2016 in Washington,DC. / AFP PHOTO / JIM WATSONJIM WATSON/AFP/Getty Images
US President Barack Obama shakes hands as he meets with Republican President-elect Donald Trump on transition planning in the Oval Office at the White House on November 10, 2016 in Washington,DC. / AFP PHOTO / JIM WATSONJIM WATSON/AFP/Getty Images
US President Barack Obama and President-elect Donald Trump shake hands during a transition planning meeting in the Oval Office at the White House on November 10, 2016 in Washington,DC. / AFP PHOTO / JIM WATSONJIM WATSON/AFP/Getty Images
US President Barack Obama shakes hands as he meets with Republican President-elect Donald Trump on transition planning in the Oval Office at the White House on November 10, 2016 in Washington,DC. / AFP PHOTO / JIM WATSONJIM WATSON/AFP/Getty Images
US President Barack Obama meets with President-elect Donald Trump to update him on transition planning in the Oval Office at the White House on November 10, 2016 in Washington,DC. / AFP PHOTO / JIM WATSONJIM WATSON/AFP/Getty Images
President-elect Donald Trump meets with US President Barack Obama during an update on transition planning in the Oval Office at the White House on November 10, 2016 in Washington,DC. / AFP PHOTO / JIM WATSONJIM WATSON/AFP/Getty Images
US President Barack Obama meets with President-elect Donald Trump to update him on transition planning in the Oval Office at the White House on November 10, 2016 in Washington,DC. / AFP PHOTO / JIM WATSONJIM WATSON/AFP/Getty Images
WASHINGTON, DC - NOVEMBER 10: U.S. President Barack Obama speaks while meeting with President-elect Donald Trump (L) following a meeting in the Oval Office November 10, 2016 in Washington, DC. Trump is scheduled to meet with members of the Republican leadership in Congress later today on Capitol Hill. (Photo by Win McNamee/Getty Images)
WASHINGTON, DC - NOVEMBER 10: President-elect Donald Trump (L) talks after a meeting with U.S. President Barack Obama (R) in the Oval Office November 10, 2016 in Washington, DC. Trump is scheduled to meet with members of the Republican leadership in Congress later today on Capitol Hill. (Photo by Win McNamee/Getty Images)
President-elect Donald Trump (L) talks after a meeting with U.S. President Barack Obama (R) in the Oval Office November 10, 2016 in Washington, DC. (Photo by Win McNamee/Getty Images)
US President Barack Obama meets with Republican President-elect Donald Trump to update him on transition planning in the Oval Office at the White House on November 10, 2016 in Washington,DC. AFP/Getty Images
US President Barack Obama meets with President-elect Donald Trump to update him on transition planning in the Oval Office at the White House on November 10, 2016 in Washington,DC. / AFP PHOTO / JIM WATSONJIM WATSON/AFP/Getty Images
US President Barack Obama meets with President-elect Donald Trump to update him on transition planning in the Oval Office at the White House on November 10, 2016 in Washington,DC. / AFP PHOTO / JIM WATSONJIM WATSON/AFP/Getty Images
US President Barack Obama meets with President-elect Donald Trump to update him on transition planning in the Oval Office at the White House on November 10, 2016 in Washington,DC. / AFP PHOTO / JIM WATSONJIM WATSON/AFP/Getty Images
US President Barack Obama meets with President-elect Donald Trump to update him on transition planning in the Oval Office at the White House on November 10, 2016 in Washington,DC. / AFP PHOTO / JIM WATSONJIM WATSON/AFP/Getty Images
A woman yells as she takes part in a protest against President-elect Donald Trump, Wednesday, Nov. 9, 2016, in Seattle's Capitol Hill neighborhood. (AP Photo/Ted S. Warren)
American students protest outside the UN climate talks during the COP22 international climate conference in Marrakesh in reaction to Donald Trump's victory in the US presidential election, on November 9, 2016. Stunned participants at UN climate talks in Marrakesh insisted that climate change denier Donald Trump cannot derail the global shift to clean energy, although some called his victory in US presidential elections a "disaster". / AFP PHOTO / FADEL SENNAFADEL SENNA/AFP/Getty Images
Police officers walk past an overturned newspaper rack during protests in Oakland, Calif., late Tuesday, Nov. 8, 2016. President-elect Donald TrumpÄôs victory set off multiple protests. (Anda Chu/Bay Area News Group via AP)
A protester faces a police line in downtown Oakland, Calif., early Wednesday, Nov. 9, 2016. President-elect Donald TrumpÄôs victory set off multiple protests. (Jane Tyska/Bay Area News Group via AP)
Lone protester Sarah, who refused to give her last name, stands outside Trump Towers holding a shredded U.S. flag, demonstrating her opposition to the election of Donald Trump as President, Wednesday Nov. 9, 2016, in New York. "Today I am here to remind Americans we do not have to give in to hatred and fear," said Sarah, adding that she tore the flag to represent the "schism in America." (AP Photo/Bebeto Matthews)
Musician Lagy Gaga stages a protest against Republican presidential nominee Donald Trump on a sanitation truck outside Trump Tower in New York City after midnight on election day November 9, 2016. AFP/Getty Images
Madeline Lopes, left, and Cassidy Irwin, both of Oakland, march with other protesters in downtown Oakland, Calif., early Wednesday, Nov. 9, 2016. President-elect Donald TrumpÄôs victory set off multiple protests. (Jane Tyska/Bay Area News Group via AP)
Musician Lagy Gaga stages a protest against Republican presidential nominee Donald Trump on a sanitation truck outside Trump Tower in New York City after midnight on election day November 9, 2016. Donald Trump stunned America and the world, riding a wave of populist resentment to defeat Hillary Clinton in the race to become the 45th president of the United States. The Republican mogul defeated his Democratic rival, plunging global markets into turmoil and casting the long-standing global political order, which hinges on Washington's leadership, into doubt. / AFP PHOTO / DOMINICK REUTERDOMINICK REUTER/AFP/Getty Images
Protesters walk in the middle of traffic lanes after Donald Trump's election victory, Tuesday, Nov. 8, 2016 in downtown, Portland, Ore. Portland police made no arrests during Tuesday night's post-election protest. (Stephanie Yao Long//The Oregonian via AP)
Protesters walk in the middle of traffic lanes after Donald Trump's election victory, Tuesday, Nov. 8, 2016 in downtown, Portland, Ore. Portland police made no arrests during Tuesday night's post-election protest. (Stephanie Yao Long//The Oregonian via AP)
Police officers walk past an overturned newspaper rack during protests in Oakland, Calif., late Tuesday, Nov. 8, 2016. President-elect Donald TrumpÄôs victory set off multiple protests. (Anda Chu/Bay Area News Group via AP)
A protester faces a police line in downtown Oakland, Calif., early Wednesday, Nov. 9, 2016. President-elect Donald TrumpÄôs victory set off multiple protests. (Jane Tyska/Bay Area News Group via AP)
Leah McCaskill, a senior psychology student, protests with others at the University of Texas at Austin following the Trump election on Wednesday, Nov 9, 2016. Hundreds of University of Texas students march through downtown Austin in protest of Donald Trump's presidential victory.(Deborah Cannon/Austin American-Statesman via AP)
People protest on the University of Connecticut campus against the election of Republican Donald Trump as President Wednesday, Nov. 9, 2016, in Storrs, Conn. (AP Photo/Pat Eaton-Robb)
A demonstrator holds a placard showing a picture of US President-elect Donald Trump modified to add a swastika and an Adolf Hitler-style moustache during a protest outside the US Embassy in London November 9, 2016 against Trump after he was declared the winner of the US presidential election. Political novice and former reality TV star Donald Trump has defeated Hillary Clinton to take the US presidency, stunning America and the world in an explosive upset fueled by a wave of grassroots anger. / AFP PHOTO / BEN STANSALLBEN STANSALL/AFP/Getty Images
Demonstrators hold placards that read "No to racism, no to Trump" during a protest outside the US Embassy in London on November 9, 2016 against US President-elect Donald Trump after he was declared the winner of the US presidential election. Political novice and former reality TV star Donald Trump has defeated Hillary Clinton to take the US presidency, stunning America and the world in an explosive upset fueled by a wave of grassroots anger. / AFP PHOTO / BEN STANSALLBEN STANSALL/AFP/Getty Images
Demonstrators hold placards that read "No to racism, no to Trump" during a protest outside the US Embassy in London on November 9, 2016 against US President-elect Donald Trump after he was declared the winner of the US presidential election. Political novice and former reality TV star Donald Trump has defeated Hillary Clinton to take the US presidency, stunning America and the world in an explosive upset fueled by a wave of grassroots anger. / AFP PHOTO / BEN STANSALLBEN STANSALL/AFP/Getty Images
An Oakland police officer checks out damage after a window was broken by protesters at a car dealership in downtown Oakland, Calif., on Wednesday, Nov. 9, 2016. President-elect Donald TrumpÄôs victory set off multiple protests. (Jane Tyska/Bay Area News Group via AP)
Madeline Lopes, left, and Cassidy Irwin, both of Oakland, march with other protesters in downtown Oakland, Calif., early Wednesday, Nov. 9, 2016. President-elect Donald TrumpÄôs victory set off multiple protests. (Jane Tyska/Bay Area News Group via AP)
A trash fire burns during protests in Oakland, Calif., late Tuesday, Nov. 8, 2016. President-elect Donald TrumpÄôs victory set off multiple protests. (Anda Chu/Bay Area News Group via AP)
A man dressed in red-white-and-blue sits on the curb during a protest against President-elect Donald Trump, Wednesday, Nov. 9, 2016, in Seattle's Capitol Hill neighborhood. (AP Photo/Ted S. Warren)
ady Gaga sits in her car after staging a protest against Republican presidential nominee Donald Trump outside Trump Tower in New York City after midnight on election day November 9, 2016. AFP/Getty Images
Republican president-elect Donald Trump delivers his acceptance speech during his election night event at the New York Hilton Midtown in the early morning hours of November 9, 2016 in New York City. Donald Trump defeated Democratic presidential nominee Hillary Clinton to become the 45th president of the United States. (Photo by Chip Somodevilla/Getty Images)
WASHINGTON, DC - NOVEMBER 09: U.S. President Barack Obama (R) and Vice President Joseph Biden (L) share a moment during a statement on the election results at the Rose Garden of the White House November 9, 2016 in Washington, DC. Republican presidential nominee Donald Trump has won the election and will become the 45th president of the United States. (Photo by Alex Wong/Getty Images)
President Barack Obama, accompanied by Vice President Joe Biden, walks back into the Oval Office of the White House in Washington, Wednesday, Nov. 9, 2016, after speaking about the election in the Rose Garden. (AP Photo/Pablo Martinez Monsivais
Mama Sarah Obama, 94, step-grandmother of outgoing US President Barack Obama, speaks during an interview at her home in the village of Nyang'oma in Kogelo, Siaya county, approximately 400 kilometres northwest of Kenyan capital Nairobi on November 9, 2016, where she welcomed US' Republican presidential candidate Donald Trump's victory in the presidential elections. AFP/Getty Images
Former Democratic US Presidential candidate Hillary Clinton greets staff and supporters after making a concession speech at the New Yorker Hotel after her defeat last night to President-elect Donald Trump November 9, 2016 in New York. / AFP PHOTO / Brendan SmialowskiBRENDAN SMIALOWSKI/AFP/Getty Images
US Democratic presidential candidate Hillary Clinton pauses as she makes a concession speech after being defeated by Republican President-elect Donald Trump, in New York on November 9, 2016. / AFP PHOTO / JEWEL SAMADJEWEL SAMAD/AFP/Getty Images
Huma Abedin, aide for former Secretary of State Hillary Clinton, looks on during a news conference at the New Yorker Hotel on November 9, 2016 in New York City. Hillary Clinton conceded the U.S. Presidency to Republican challenger Donald Trump. (Photo by Justin Sullivan/Getty Images)
NEW YORK, NY - NOVEMBER 09: Former Secretary of State Hillary Clinton, accompanied by her husband former President Bill Clinton, pauses as she concedes the presidential election at the New Yorker Hotel on November 9, 2016 in New York City. Republican candidate Donald Trump won the 2016 presidential election in the early hours of the morning in a widely unforeseen upset. (Photo by Justin Sullivan/Getty Images)
Hillary Clinton, accompanied by her husband, former President Bill Clinton, daughter Chelsea Clinton, and Chelsea's husband Marc Mezvinsky, arrives to speak to staff and supporters at the New Yorker Hotel in New York, Wednesday, Nov. 9, 2016. Clinton conceded the presidency to Donald Trump in a phone call early Wednesday morning, a stunning end to a campaign that appeared poised right up until Election Day to make her the first woman elected U.S. president. (AP Photo/Andrew Harnik)
Former President Bill Clinton listens as his wife, Democratic presidential candidate Hillary Clinton speaks in New York, Wednesday, Nov. 9, 2016. Clinton conceded the presidency to Donald Trump in a phone call early Wednesday morning, a stunning end to a campaign that appeared poised right up until Election Day to make her the first woman elected U.S. president. (AP Photo/Andrew Harnik)
US Democratic presidential candidate Hillary Clinton steps down a staircase after making a concession speech following her defeat to Republican President-elect Donald Trump, in New York on November 9, 2016. / AFP PHOTO / JEWEL SAMADJEWEL SAMAD/AFP/Getty Images
Hillary Clinton arrives to speak to staff and supporters at the New Yorker Hotel in New York, Wednesday, Nov. 9, 2016, where she conceded her defeat to Republican Donald Trump after the hard-fought U.S. presidential election. (AP Photo/Andrew Harnik)
US Democratic presidential candidate Hillary Clinton makes a concession speech after being defeated by Republican President-elect Donald Trump, as former President Bill Clinton and running mate Tim Kaine(R) look on in New York on November 9, 2016. / AFP PHOTO / JEWEL SAMADJEWEL SAMAD/AFP/Getty Images
Commuters take copies of the Evening Standard Newspaper in central London on November 9, 2016, showing a picture of newly elected US President Donald Trump and reporting on the result of the US presidential election.
An Iranian woman walks past a mural on the wall of the former US embassy in the Iranian capital Tehran on November 9, 2016. Iran's President Hassan Rouhani said there was "no possibility" of its nuclear deal with world powers being overturned by US president-elect Donald Trump despite his threat to rip it up. / AFP PHOTO / ATTA KENAREATTA KENARE/AFP/Getty Images
TOPSHOT - Jake Krupa colors in an electoral map as states are projected for Republican presidential candidate Donald Trump or Democratic Presidential candidate Hillary Clinton at an election watching party in Coconut Grove, Florida, on November 8, 2016. / AFP PHOTO / RHONA WISERHONA WISE/AFP/Getty Images
TOPSHOT - Republican presidential candidate Donald Trump flanked by members of his family speaks to supporters during election night at the New York Hilton Midtown in New York on November 9, 2016. Trump won the US presidency. / AFP PHOTO / Timothy A. CLARYTIMOTHY A. CLARY/AFP/Getty Images
TOPSHOT - US President-elect Donald Trump arrives with his son Baron at the New York Hilton Midtown in New York on November 8, 2016. Trump stunned America and the world Wednesday, riding a wave of populist resentment to defeat Hillary Clinton in the race to become the 45th president of the United States. / AFP PHOTO / SAUL LOEBSAUL LOEB/AFP/Getty Images
Republican president-elect Donald Trump delivers his acceptance speech during his election night event at the New York Hilton Midtown in the early morning hours of November 9, 2016 in New York City. Donald Trump defeated Democratic presidential nominee Hillary Clinton to become the 45th president of the United States. (Photo by Chip Somodevilla/Getty Images)
US President-elect Donald Trump arrives with his son Baron and wife Melania at the New York Hilton Midtown in New York on November 8, 2016. AFP/Getty Images
Donald Trump as he makes his acceptance speech in New York following his victory to become he 45th president of the United States. Pic: Paco Anselmi/PA Wire
NEW YORK, NY - NOVEMBER 09: Republican president-elect Donald Trump walks on stage during his election night event at the New York Hilton Midtown in the early morning hours of November 9, 2016 in New York City. Donald Trump defeated Democratic presidential nominee Hillary Clinton to become the 45th president of the United States. (Photo by Mark Wilson/Getty Images)
NEW YORK, NY - NOVEMBER 09: Republican president-elect Donald Trump acknowledges the crowd during his election night event at the New York Hilton Midtown in the early morning hours of November 9, 2016 in New York City. Donald Trump defeated Democratic presidential nominee Hillary Clinton to become the 45th president of the United States. (Photo by Mark Wilson/Getty Images)
Republican presidential elect Donald Trump (L) arrives to speak during election night at the New York Hilton Midtown in New York on November 9, 2016.
NEW YORK, NY - NOVEMBER 09: Republican president-elect Donald Trump acknowledges the crowd during his election night event at the New York Hilton Midtown in the early morning hours of November 9, 2016 in New York City. Donald Trump defeated Democratic presidential nominee Hillary Clinton to become the 45th president of the United States. (Photo by Spencer Platt/Getty Images)
US President-elect Donald Trump arrives at the New York Hilton Midtown in New York on November 8, 2016. Trump stunned America and the world Wednesday, riding a wave of populist resentment to defeat Hillary Clinton in the race to become the 45th president of the United States. / AFP PHOTO / SAUL LOEBSAUL LOEB/AFP/Getty Images
Republican presidential elect Donald Trump arrives to speak during election night at the New York Hilton Midtown in New York on November 9, 2016. / AFP PHOTO / JIM WATSONJIM WATSON/AFP/Getty Images
NEW YORK, NY - NOVEMBER 09: Vice president-elect Mike Pence (C) speaks to supporters at Republican president-elect Donald Trump's election night event at the New York Hilton Midtown in the early morning hours of November 9, 2016 in New York City. Donald Trump defeated Democratic presidential nominee Hillary Clinton to become the 45th president of the United States. (Photo by Joe Raedle/Getty Images)
A supporter of Republican presidential nominee Donald Trump flashes a sign during election night at the New York Hilton Midtown in New York on November 9, 2016. / AFP PHOTO / Timothy A. CLARYTIMOTHY A. CLARY/AFP/Getty Images
NEW YORK, NY - NOVEMBER 09: People celebrate during the call for Republican president-elect Donald Trump at his election night event at the New York Hilton Midtown on November 9, 2016 in New York City. at the New York Hilton Midtown in the early morning hours of November 9, 2016 in New York City. Donald Trump defeated Democratic presidential nominee Hillary Clinton to become the 45th president of the United States. (Photo by Joe Raedle/Getty Images)
NEW YORK, NY - NOVEMBER 09: Vice president-elect Mike Pence walks on stage with his wife Karen Pence at Republican president-elect Donald Trump election night event at the New York Hilton Midtown in the early morning hours of November 9, 2016 in New York City. Americans went to the polls yerterday to choose between Republican presidential nominee Donald Trump and Democratic presidential nominee Hillary Clinton as they go to the polls to vote for the next president of the United States. (Photo by Joe Raedle/Getty Images)
NEW YORK, NY - NOVEMBER 09: Vice president-elect Mike Pence speaks to supporters at Republican president-elect Donald Trump's election night event at the New York Hilton Midtown in the early morning hours of November 9, 2016 in New York City. Americans went to the polls yerterday to choose between Republican presidential nominee Donald Trump and Democratic presidential nominee Hillary Clinton as they go to the polls to vote for the next president of the United States. (Photo by Mark Wilson/Getty Images)
NEW YORK, NY - NOVEMBER 09: Vice president-elect Mike Pence (C) speaks to supporters at Republican president-elect Donald Trump's election night event at the New York Hilton Midtown in the early morning hours of November 9, 2016 in New York City. Americans went to the polls yerterday to choose between Republican presidential nominee Donald Trump and Democratic presidential nominee Hillary Clinton as they go to the polls to vote for the next president of the United States. (Photo by Spencer Platt/Getty Images)
US Republican Vice President elect Mike Pence and his wife Carol arrive at the New York Hilton Midtown in New York on November 8, 2016. Donald Trump stunned America and the world Wednesday, riding a wave of populist resentment to defeat Hillary Clinton in the race to become the 45th president of the United States. / AFP PHOTO / SAUL LOEBSAUL LOEB/AFP/Getty Images
File photo dated 25/06/16 of Donald Trump, who is to be the next president of the United States after voters gambled on his promise to "Make America Great Again". PRESS ASSOCIATION Photo. Issue date: Wednesday November 9, 2016. See PA story POLITICS President. Photo credit should read: Andrew Milligan/PA Wire
US President-elect Donald Trump arrives with his son Baron and wife Melania at the New York Hilton Midtown in New York on November 8, 2016. Trump stunned America and the world Wednesday, riding a wave of populist resentment to defeat Hillary Clinton in the race to become the 45th president of the United States. / AFP PHOTO / SAUL LOEBSAUL LOEB/AFP/Getty Images
NEW YORK, NY - NOVEMBER 09: Republican president-elect Donald Trump walks on stage during his election night event at the New York Hilton Midtown in the early morning hours of November 9, 2016 in New York City. Donald Trump defeated Democratic presidential nominee Hillary Clinton to become the 45th president of the United States. (Photo by Mark Wilson/Getty Images)
NEW YORK, NY - NOVEMBER 09: Republican president-elect Donald Trump acknowledges the crowd during his election night event at the New York Hilton Midtown in the early morning hours of November 9, 2016 in New York City. Donald Trump defeated Democratic presidential nominee Hillary Clinton to become the 45th president of the United States. (Photo by Mark Wilson/Getty Images)
Republican presidential elect Donald Trump (L) arrives to speak during election night at the New York Hilton Midtown in New York on November 9, 2016. / AFP PHOTO / JIM WATSONJIM WATSON/AFP/Getty Images
NEW YORK, NY - NOVEMBER 09: Republican president-elect Donald Trump acknowledges the crowd during his election night event at the New York Hilton Midtown in the early morning hours of November 9, 2016 in New York City. Donald Trump defeated Democratic presidential nominee Hillary Clinton to become the 45th president of the United States. (Photo by Spencer Platt/Getty Images)
US President-elect Donald Trump arrives at the New York Hilton Midtown in New York on November 8, 2016. Trump stunned America and the world Wednesday, riding a wave of populist resentment to defeat Hillary Clinton in the race to become the 45th president of the United States. / AFP PHOTO / SAUL LOEBSAUL LOEB/AFP/Getty Images
Republican presidential elect Donald Trump arrives to speak during election night at the New York Hilton Midtown in New York on November 9, 2016. / AFP PHOTO / JIM WATSONJIM WATSON/AFP/Getty Images
NEW YORK, NY - NOVEMBER 09: Vice president-elect Mike Pence (C) speaks to supporters at Republican president-elect Donald Trump's election night event at the New York Hilton Midtown in the early morning hours of November 9, 2016 in New York City. Donald Trump defeated Democratic presidential nominee Hillary Clinton to become the 45th president of the United States. (Photo by Joe Raedle/Getty Images)
A supporter of Republican presidential nominee Donald Trump flashes a sign during election night at the New York Hilton Midtown in New York on November 9, 2016. / AFP PHOTO / Timothy A. CLARYTIMOTHY A. CLARY/AFP/Getty Images
NEW YORK, NY - NOVEMBER 09: People celebrate during the call for Republican president-elect Donald Trump at his election night event at the New York Hilton Midtown on November 9, 2016 in New York City. at the New York Hilton Midtown in the early morning hours of November 9, 2016 in New York City. Donald Trump defeated Democratic presidential nominee Hillary Clinton to become the 45th president of the United States. (Photo by Joe Raedle/Getty Images)
NEW YORK, NY - NOVEMBER 09: Vice president-elect Mike Pence walks on stage with his wife Karen Pence at Republican president-elect Donald Trump election night event at the New York Hilton Midtown in the early morning hours of November 9, 2016 in New York City. Americans went to the polls yerterday to choose between Republican presidential nominee Donald Trump and Democratic presidential nominee Hillary Clinton as they go to the polls to vote for the next president of the United States. (Photo by Joe Raedle/Getty Images)
NEW YORK, NY - NOVEMBER 09: Vice president-elect Mike Pence speaks to supporters at Republican president-elect Donald Trump's election night event at the New York Hilton Midtown in the early morning hours of November 9, 2016 in New York City. Americans went to the polls yerterday to choose between Republican presidential nominee Donald Trump and Democratic presidential nominee Hillary Clinton as they go to the polls to vote for the next president of the United States. (Photo by Mark Wilson/Getty Images)
NEW YORK, NY - NOVEMBER 09: Vice president-elect Mike Pence (C) speaks to supporters at Republican president-elect Donald Trump's election night event at the New York Hilton Midtown in the early morning hours of November 9, 2016 in New York City. Americans went to the polls yerterday to choose between Republican presidential nominee Donald Trump and Democratic presidential nominee Hillary Clinton as they go to the polls to vote for the next president of the United States. (Photo by Spencer Platt/Getty Images)
US Republican Vice President elect Mike Pence and his wife Carol arrive at the New York Hilton Midtown in New York on November 8, 2016. Donald Trump stunned America and the world Wednesday, riding a wave of populist resentment to defeat Hillary Clinton in the race to become the 45th president of the United States. / AFP PHOTO / SAUL LOEBSAUL LOEB/AFP/Getty Images
File photo dated 25/06/16 of Donald Trump, who is to be the next president of the United States after voters gambled on his promise to "Make America Great Again". PRESS ASSOCIATION Photo. Issue date: Wednesday November 9, 2016. See PA story POLITICS President. Photo credit should read: Andrew Milligan/PA Wire
Donald Trump supporters react outside the White House in Washington during the US presidential election night on November 9, 2016. Millions of Americans turned out on November 8th to decide whether to send Hillary Clinton to the White House as their first woman president or to put their trust in maverick populist Donald Trump. / AFP PHOTO / andrew birajANDREW BIRAJ/AFP/Getty Images
NEW YORK, NY - NOVEMBER 09: Supporters of Republican presidential nominee Donald Trump cheer during the election night event at the New York Hilton Midtown on November 8, 2016 in New York City. Americans today will choose between Republican presidential nominee Donald Trump and Democratic presidential nominee Hillary Clinton as they go to the polls to vote for the next president of the United States. (Photo by Chip Somodevilla/Getty Images)
NEW YORK, NY - NOVEMBER 09: An attendee holds up a sign in support of Republican presidential nominee Donald Trump that reads "Hispanics For Trump" during the election night event at the New York Hilton Midtown on November 8, 2016 in New York City. Americans today will choose between Republican presidential nominee Donald Trump and Democratic presidential nominee Hillary Clinton as they go to the polls to vote for the next president of the United States. (Photo by Mark Wilson/Getty Images)
Supporter of Republican candidate Donald Trump, Robin Labani, 50, of Gilbert, Arizona cheers as election results come in during a viewing party at a hotel in downtown Phoenix, Arizona on November 8, 2016. Millions of Americans voted November 8th for their new leader in a historic election that will either elevate Democrat Hillary Clinton as their first woman president or hand power to maverick populist Donald Trump. / AFP PHOTO / Laura SegallLAURA SEGALL/AFP/Getty Images
A supporter of Republican presidential nominee Donald Trump reacts to early results during election night at the New York Hilton Midtown in New York on November 8, 2016. / AFP PHOTO / Mandel NGANMANDEL NGAN/AFP/Getty Images
NEW YORK, NY - NOVEMBER 09: People cheer at Republican presidential nominee Donald Trumps election night event at the New York Hilton Midtown on November 8, 2016 in New York City. Americans today will choose between Republican presidential nominee Donald Trump and Democratic presidential nominee Hillary Clinton as they go to the polls to vote for the next president of the United States. (Photo by Joe Raedle/Getty Images)
NEW YORK, NY - NOVEMBER 09: Campaign chairman John Podesta speaks on stage at Democratic presidential nominee former Secretary of State Hillary Clinton's election night event at the Jacob K. Javits Convention Center November 9, 2016 in New York City. Clinton is running against Republican nominee, Donald J. Trump to be the 45th President of the United States. (Photo by Win McNamee/Getty Images)
People gather around Times Square to view televised results of the US presidential election on November 8, 2016 in New York. AFP/Getty Images
A supporter of Republican presidential candidate Donald Trump holds up a Trump doll during an election night party at a hotel in downtown Phoenix, Arizona on November 8, 2016. Millions of Americans voted November 8th for their new leader in a historic election that will either elevate Democrat Hillary Clinton as their first woman president or hand power to maverick populist Donald Trump. / AFP PHOTO / Laura SegallLAURA SEGALL/AFP/Getty Images
A dog is seen during a gathering at a bar as US presidential election results arrive on November 8, 2016 in Mexico City. Millions of Americans voted November 8th for their new leader in a historic election that will either elevate Democrat Hillary Clinton as their first woman president or hand power to maverick populist Donald Trump. / AFP PHOTO / PEDRO PARDOPEDRO PARDO/AFP/Getty Images
NEW YORK, NY - NOVEMBER 09: Campaign chairman John Podesta speaks on stage at Democratic presidential nominee former Secretary of State Hillary Clinton's election night event at the Jacob K. Javits Convention Center November 9, 2016 in New York City. Clinton is running against Republican nominee, Donald J. Trump to be the 45th President of the United States. (Photo by Drew Angerer/Getty Images)
NEW YORK, NY - NOVEMBER 09: People watch voting results at Democratic presidential nominee former Secretary of State Hillary Clinton's election night event at the Jacob K. Javits Convention Center November 9, 2016 in New York City. Clinton is running against Republican nominee, Donald J. Trump to be the 45th President of the United States. (Photo by Elsa/Getty Images) *** BESTPIX ***
NEW YORK, NY - NOVEMBER 09: Campaign chairman John Podesta leaves the stage after speaking at Democratic presidential nominee former Secretary of State Hillary Clinton election night event at the Jacob K. Javits Convention Center November 9, 2016 in New York City. Clinton is running against Republican nominee, Donald J. Trump to be the 45th President of the United States. (Photo by Aaron P. Bernstein/Getty Images)
NEW YORK, NY - NOVEMBER 09: People watch voting results at Democratic presidential nominee former Secretary of State Hillary Clinton's election night event at the Jacob K. Javits Convention Center November 9, 2016 in New York City. Clinton is running against Republican nominee, Donald J. Trump to be the 45th President of the United States. (Photo by Elsa/Getty Images)
NEW YORK, NY - NOVEMBER 08: People react to the voting results at Democratic presidential nominee former Secretary of State Hillary Clinton's election night event at the Jacob K. Javits Convention Center November 9, 2016 in New York City. Clinton is running against Republican nominee, Donald J. Trump to be the 45th President of the United States. (Photo by Elsa/Getty Images)
NEW YORK, NY - NOVEMBER 08: People gather in Times Square as they await the results of the presidential election on November 8, 2016 in New York City. Trump was leading the delegate count and popular vote late election night. (Photo by Michael Reaves/Getty Images)
BERLIN, GERMANY - NOVEMBER 09: An "I voted" sticker lies on the floor at the U.S. elections party hosted by the Aspen Institute Germany at the Baden-Wuerttemberg State Representation on November 9, 2016 in Berlin, Germany. Many Germans are watching the U.S. elections closely and a majority are hoping Hillary Clinton will defeat Donald Trump. (Photo by Sean Gallup/Getty Images)
NEW YORK, NY - NOVEMBER 09: Kids rest in the late hours of Republican presidential nominee Donald Trump's election night event at the New York Hilton Midtown on November 8, 2016 in New York City. Americans today will choose between Republican presidential nominee Donald Trump and Democratic presidential nominee Hillary Clinton as they go to the polls to vote for the next president of the United States. (Photo by Spencer Platt/Getty Images)
Right-wing activists of India's Hindu Sena celebrate the potential victorious outcome for US Republican presidential candidate Donald Trump in the US presidential elections, in New Delhi on November 9, 2016. Euphoric Donald Trump supporters transformed into a sea of "Make America Great Again" hats, shouting "USA" and partying late into the night as the billionaire appeared within reach of victory. / AFP PHOTO / PRAKASH SINGHPRAKASH SINGH/AFP/Getty Images
NEW YORK, NY - NOVEMBER 09: Supporters of Republican presidential nominee Donald Trump gather during the election night event at the New York Hilton Midtown on November 8, 2016 in New York City. Americans today will choose between Republican presidential nominee Donald Trump and Democratic presidential nominee Hillary Clinton as they go to the polls to vote for the next president of the United States. (Photo by Spencer Platt/Getty Images)
SALT LAKE CITY, UT - NOVEMBER 08: Supporters of U.S. Independent presidential candidate Evan McMullin cheer him on at an election night party on November 8, 2016 in Salt Lake City, Utah. Republican candidate Donald Trump was declared the winner in Utah late in the evening. (Photo by George Frey/Getty Images)
NEW YORK, NY - NOVEMBER 09: Musician Cher is interviewed at Democratic presidential nominee former Secretary of State Hillary Clinton's election night event at the Jacob K. Javits Convention Center November 9, 2016 in New York City. Clinton is running against Republican nominee, Donald J. Trump to be the 45th President of the United States. (Photo by Aaron P. Bernstein/Getty Images)
Journalists and media crew memebers wait for Democratic presidential nominee Hillary Clinton declaration during election night at the Jacob K. Javits Convention Center in New York on November 8, 2016. / AFP PHOTO / Robyn BECKROBYN BECK/AFP/Getty Images
People gather around Times Square to view televised results of the US presidential election on November 9, 2016 in New York. Millions of Americans voted November 8th for their new leader in a historic election that will either elevate Democrat Hillary Clinton as their first woman president or hand power to maverick populist Donald Trump. / AFP PHOTO / EDUARDO MUNOZ ALVAREZEDUARDO MUNOZ ALVAREZ/AFP/Getty Images
Howard Nizebeth waves a U.S. flag during an Election Day gathering at Rockefeller Center, Tuesday, Nov. 8, 2016, in New York. (AP Photo/Julio Cortez)
Supporters of Republican presidential candidate Donald Trump cheer as they watch election returns during an election night rally, Tuesday, Nov. 8, 2016, in New York. (AP Photo/ Evan Vucci)
Supporters react to election results during Democratic presidential nominee Hillary Clinton's election night rally in the Jacob Javits Center glass enclosed lobby in New York, Tuesday, Nov. 8, 2016. (AP Photo/Frank Franklin II)
NEW YORK, NY - NOVEMBER 08: A group of women react as voting results come in at Democratic presidential nominee former Secretary of State Hillary Clinton's election night event at the Jacob K. Javits Convention Center November 8, 2016 in New York City. Clinton is running against Republican nominee, Donald J. Trump to be the 45th President of the United States. (Photo by Drew Angerer/Getty Images)
American flags are handed out during Democratic presidential nominee Hillary Clinton's election night rally in the Jacob Javits Center glass enclosed lobby in New York, Tuesday, Nov. 8, 2016. (AP Photo/David Goldman)
Supporters of Republican presidential candidate Donald Trump react as they watch the election results during Trump's election night rally, Tuesday, Nov. 8, 2016, in New York. (AP Photo/John Locher)
NEW YORK, NY - NOVEMBER 08: People watch voting results in front of an American flag at Democratic presidential nominee former Secretary of State Hillary Clinton's election night event at the Jacob K. Javits Convention Center November 8, 2016 in New York City. Clinton is running against Republican nominee, Donald J. Trump to be the 45th President of the United States. (Photo by John Moore/Getty Images)
Trump supporter David Ramirez of Longwood, Fla. reacts as Fox News announces Republican presidential candidate Donald Trump will win Ohio, at the Republican Party of Seminole County, Fla. election watch event in Altamonte Springs, near Orlando, Fla. Tuesday, Nov. 8, 2016. (Joe Burbank/Orlando Sentinel via AP)
Brent Peterson of Las Vegas, watches results during an election night watch party hosted by the Nevada GOP, Tuesday, Nov. 8, 2016, at South Point hotel-casino in Las Vegas. (AP Photo/Ronda Churchill)
NEW YORK, NY - NOVEMBER 08: People cheer at Republican presidential nominee Donald Trumps election night event at the New York Hilton Midtown on November 8, 2016 in New York City. Americans today will choose between Republican presidential nominee Donald Trump and Democratic presidential nominee Hillary Clinton as they go to the polls to vote for the next president of the United States. (Photo by Chip Somodevilla/Getty Images)
NEW YORK, NY - NOVEMBER 08: Tattoo artist Gene Coffey attends MTV News Election Night: "The People's Playhouse" at MTV Studios on November 8, 2016 in New York City. (Photo by Brad Barket/Getty Images for MTV News)
NEW YORK, NY - NOVEMBER 08: People cheer at Republican presidential nominee Donald Trumps election night event at the New York Hilton Midtown on November 8, 2016 in New York City. Americans today will choose between Republican presidential nominee Donald Trump and Democratic presidential nominee Hillary Clinton as they go to the polls to vote for the next president of the United States. (Photo by Chip Somodevilla/Getty Images)
Supporters of Republican presidential nominee Donald Trump cheer during election night at the New York Hilton Midtown in New York on November 8, 2016. / AFP PHOTO / JIM WATSONJIM WATSON/AFP/Getty Images
NEW YORK, NY - NOVEMBER 08: An attendee holds up a sign in support of Republican presidential nominee Donald Trump that reads "Make America Great Again" during the election night event at the New York Hilton Midtown on November 8, 2016 in New York City. Americans today will choose between Republican presidential nominee Donald Trump and Democratic presidential nominee Hillary Clinton as they go to the polls to vote for the next president of the United States. (Photo by Joe Raedle/Getty Images)
Supporters of Republican presidential nominee Donald Trump watch the results during election night at the New York Hilton Midtown in New York on November 8, 2016. / AFP PHOTO / JIM WATSONJIM WATSON/AFP/Getty Images
NEW YORK, NY - NOVEMBER 08: People cheer as voting results for Florida come in at Republican presidential nominee Donald Trumps election night event at the New York Hilton Midtown on November 8, 2016 in New York City. Americans today will choose between Republican presidential nominee Donald Trump and Democratic presidential nominee Hillary Clinton as they go to the polls to vote for the next president of the United States. (Photo by Chip Somodevilla/Getty Images)
People cheer as voting results come in at Republican presidential nominee Donald Trumps election night event at the New York Hilton Midtown on November 8, 2016 in New York City. Americans today will choose between Republican presidential nominee Donald Trump and Democratic presidential nominee Hillary Clinton as they go to the polls to vote for the next president of the United States. (Photo by Joe Raedle/Getty Images)
NEW YORK, NY - NOVEMBER 08: People cheer as voting results for Florida come in at Republican presidential nominee Donald Trumps election night event at the New York Hilton Midtown on November 8, 2016 in New York City. Americans today will choose between Republican presidential nominee Donald Trump and Democratic presidential nominee Hillary Clinton as they go to the polls to vote for the next president of the United States. (Photo by Chip Somodevilla/Getty Images)
NEW YORK, NY - NOVEMBER 08: People cheer as voting results for Florida come in at Republican presidential nominee Donald Trumps election night event at the New York Hilton Midtown on November 8, 2016 in New York City. Americans today will choose between Republican presidential nominee Donald Trump and Democratic presidential nominee Hillary Clinton as they go to the polls to vote for the next president of the United States. (Photo by Chip Somodevilla/Getty Images)
New York governor Andrew Cuomo looks on after speaking in support of Democratic presidential nominee Hillary Clinton during election night outside the Jacob K. Javits Convention Center in New York on November 8, 2016. / AFP PHOTO / Kena BetancurKENA BETANCUR/AFP/Getty Images
Two Vietnamese students take a selfie with a paper model of the US Republican presidential candidat during an election watch event at the US embassy in Hanoi on November 9, 2016. / AFP PHOTO / HOANG DINH NAMHOANG DINH NAM/AFP/Getty Images
NEW YORK, NY - NOVEMBER 08: People cheer as voting results for Florida come in at Republican presidential nominee Donald Trumps election night event at the New York Hilton Midtown on November 8, 2016 in New York City. Americans today will choose between Republican presidential nominee Donald Trump and Democratic presidential nominee Hillary Clinton as they go to the polls to vote for the next president of the United States. (Photo by Chip Somodevilla/Getty Images)
New York governor Andrew Cuomo speaks in support of Democratic presidential nominee Hillary Clinton during election night outside the Jacob K. Javits Convention Center in New York on November 8, 2016. / AFP PHOTO / Kena BetancurKENA BETANCUR/AFP/Getty Images
NEW YORK, NY - NOVEMBER 08: People watch voting results at Democratic presidential nominee former Secretary of State Hillary Clinton's election night event at the Jacob K. Javits Convention Center November 8, 2016 in New York City. Clinton is running against Republican nominee, Donald J. Trump to be the 45th President of the United States. (Photo by Aaron P. Bernstein/Getty Images)
Sri Vasamsetti, 22, of Seattle and a supporter of Democratic presidential candidate Hillary Clinton, watches televised coverage of the US presidential election at the Comet Tavern in the Capitol Hill neighborhood of Seattle, Washington on November 8, 2016. / AFP PHOTO / Jason RedmondJASON REDMOND/AFP/Getty Images
Two embassy staffs follow the results of the US presidential elections during an election watch event at the US embassy in Hanoi on November 9, 2016. / AFP PHOTO / HOANG DINH NAMHOANG DINH NAM/AFP/Getty Images
Khizr Khan gestures after speaking in support of Democratic presidential nominee Hillary Clinton during election night outside the Jacob K. Javits Convention Center in New York on November 8, 2016. / AFP PHOTO / Kena BetancurKENA BETANCUR/AFP/Getty Images
Trump campaign co-chair for Seminole County, Fla., L.A. Key, listens to incumbent Rep. John Mica of Florida's 7th congressional district concede defeat to Democratic challenger Stephanie Murphy, at the election watch rally for the Republican Party of Seminole County in Altamonte Springs, Fla., Tuesday, Nov. 8, 2016. (Joe Burbank/Orlando Sentinel via AP)
NEW YORK, NY - NOVEMBER 08: An attendee holds up signs in support of Republican presidential nominee Donald Trump during the election night event at the New York Hilton Midtown on November 8, 2016 in New York City. Americans today will choose between Republican presidential nominee Donald Trump and Democratic presidential nominee Hillary Clinton as they go to the polls to vote for the next president of the United States. (Photo by Spencer Platt/Getty Images)
NEW YORK, NY - NOVEMBER 08: People watch voting results at Democratic presidential nominee former Secretary of State Hillary Clinton's election night event at the Jacob K. Javits Convention Center November 8, 2016 in New York City. Clinton is running against Republican nominee, Donald J. Trump to be the 45th President of the United States. (Photo by Aaron P. Bernstein/Getty Images)
Khizr Khan speaks in support of Democratic presidential nominee Hillary Clinton during election night outside the Jacob K. Javits Convention Center in New York on November 8, 2016. / AFP PHOTO / Kena BetancurKENA BETANCUR/AFP/Getty Images
Singer Katy Perry waves after speaking in support of Democratic presidential nominee Hillary Clinton during election night outside the Jacob K. Javits Convention Center in New York on November 8, 2016. / AFP PHOTO / Kena BetancurKENA BETANCUR/AFP/Getty Images
Sri Vasamsetti, 22, of Seattle and a supporter of Democratic presidential candidate Hillary Clinton, watches televised coverage of the US presidential election at the Comet Tavern in the Capitol Hill neighborhood of Seattle, Washington on November 8, 2016. / AFP PHOTO / Jason RedmondJASON REDMOND/AFP/Getty Images
SYDNEY, AUSTRALIA - NOVEMBER 09: A man sleeps during at the United States Studies Centre at the University of Sydney on November 9, 2016 in Sydney, Australia. Americans go to the polls today to choose between Republican Donald Trump and Democrat Hillary Clinton for president. (Photo by Daniel Munoz/Getty Images)
SYDNEY, AUSTRALIA - NOVEMBER 09: People attend an election event at the United States Studies Centre at the University of Sydney on November 9, 2016 in Sydney, Australia. Americans go to the polls today to choose between Republican Donald Trump and Democrat Hillary Clinton for president. (Photo by Daniel Munoz/Getty Images)
NEW YORK, NY - NOVEMBER 08: An attendee holds up a sign in support of Republican presidential nominee Donald Trump that reads "Bikers For Trump" during the election night event at the New York Hilton Midtown on November 8, 2016 in New York City. Americans today will choose between Republican presidential nominee Donald Trump and Democratic presidential nominee Hillary Clinton as they go to the polls to vote for the next president of the United States. (Photo by Spencer Platt/Getty Images)
NEW YORK, NY - NOVEMBER 08: Emily Lindahl hugs and kisses her daughter Maureen Liccione as voting results for Virginia come in at Democratic presidential nominee former Secretary of State Hillary Clinton's election night event at the Jacob K. Javits Convention Center November 8, 2016 in New York City. Clinton is running against Republican nominee, Donald J. Trump to be the 45th President of the United States. (Photo by Win McNamee/Getty Images)
JANESVILLE, WI - NOVEMBER 08: With his wife Janna by his side Speaker of the U.S. House of Representatives Paul Ryan (R-WI) greets supporters at an election-night rally on November 8, 2016 in Janesville, Wisconsin. Ryan said recently that he would like to remain in his current position as House speaker. (Photo by Scott Olson/Getty Images)
A guest picks up a cookie depicting Democratic presidential nominee Hillary Clinton prior to watch a live broadcasting of the 2016 U.S. Presidential Election results at U.S. Ambassador's residence in Tokyo, Wednesday, Nov. 9, 2016. (AP Photo/Eugene Hoshiko)
Julio Jacot wears a hat in support of Democratic presidential candidate Hillary Clinton at an election night watch party Tuesday, Nov. 8, 2016, in St. Louis. (AP Photo/Jeff Roberson)
Supporters of Democratic presidential nominee Hillary Clinton react during election night at the Jacob K. Javits Convention Center in New York on November 8, 2016. / AFP PHOTO / Jewel SAMADJEWEL SAMAD/AFP/Getty Images
SEOUL, SOUTH KOREA - NOVEMBER 09: A woman watchs an election board on November 9, 2016 in Seoul, South Korea. South Koreans and Americans have been paying close attention to the U.S. presidential race between Democratic presidential candidate Hillary Clinton and Republican presidential candidate Donald Trump. (Photo by Chung Sung-Jun/Getty Images)
Supporters of Republican presidential nominee Donald Trump react to Fox News calling Ohio for Trump at the Trump Bar inside Trump Tower in New York City on election night, November 8, 2016. Millions of Americans voted November 8th for their new leader in a historic election that will either elevate Democrat Hillary Clinton as their first woman president or hand power to maverick populist Donald Trump. / AFP PHOTO / DOMINICK REUTERDOMINICK REUTER/AFP/Getty Images
NEW YORK, NY - NOVEMBER 08: People cheer as voting results for Virginia come in at Democratic presidential nominee former Secretary of State Hillary Clinton's election night event at the Jacob K. Javits Convention Center November 8, 2016 in New York City. Clinton is running against Republican nominee, Donald J. Trump to be the 45th President of the United States. (Photo by Elsa/Getty Images)
MELBOURNE, AUSTRALIA - NOVEMBER 09: A woman wears her anti-Trump cap at a 'Democrats Abroad' function at the Kingston on November 9, 2016 in Melbourne, Australia. There has been huge interest in the U.S. Election between Hillary Clinton and Donald Trump in Australia, with many people arranging viewing parties around the country to watch the results live. (Photo by Darrian Traynor/Getty Images)
MELBOURNE, AUSTRALIA - NOVEMBER 09: Democrat supporters cheer an early poll result at a 'Democrats Abroad' function at the Kingston Hotel on November 9, 2016 in Melbourne, Australia. There has been huge interest in the U.S. Election between Hillary Clinton and Donald Trump in Australia, with many people arranging viewing parties around the country to watch the results live. (Photo by Darrian Traynor/Getty Images)
NEW YORK, NY - NOVEMBER 08: An attendee holds up a sign in support of Republican presidential nominee Donald Trump that reads "Women For Trump" during the election night event at the New York Hilton Midtown on November 8, 2016 in New York City. Americans today will choose between Republican presidential nominee Donald Trump and Democratic presidential nominee Hillary Clinton as they go to the polls to vote for the next president of the United States. (Photo by Spencer Platt/Getty Images)
Girls wear jackets with the image of Hillary Clinton during Democratic presidential nominee's election night rally in the Jacob Javits Center glass enclosed lobby in New York, Tuesday, Nov. 8, 2016. (AP Photo/David Goldman)
NEW YORK, NY - NOVEMBER 08: People watch voting results at Democratic presidential nominee former Secretary of State Hillary Clinton's election night event at the Jacob K. Javits Convention Center November 8, 2016 in New York City. Clinton is running against Republican nominee, Donald J. Trump to be the 45th President of the United States. (Photo by Aaron P. Bernstein/Getty Images)
A police officer stands outside Trump Tower in New York City on election day November 8, 2016. / AFP PHOTO / DOMINICK REUTERDOMINICK REUTER/AFP/Getty Images
A "Naked Cowboy" performer sings about Republican presidential nominee Donald Trump outside Trump Tower in New York City on election day November 8, 2016. Hillary Clinton and Donald Trump were running neck and neck in early results November 8th as polling stations closed in the eastern United States, with the world waiting anxiously to see who will win the historic White House clash. / AFP PHOTO / DOMINICK REUTERDOMINICK REUTER/AFP/Getty Images
NEW YORK, NY - NOVEMBER 08: People watch voting results at Democratic presidential nominee former Secretary of State Hillary Clinton's election night event at the Jacob K. Javits Convention Center November 8, 2016 in New York City. Clinton is running against Republican nominee, Donald J. Trump to be the 45th President of the United States. (Photo by Elsa/Getty Images)
NEW YORK, NY - NOVEMBER 08: Supporters of Republican presidential nominee Donald Trump watch early results during the election night event at the New York Hilton Midtown on November 8, 2016 in New York City. Americans today will choose between Republican presidential nominee Donald Trump and Democratic presidential nominee Hillary Clinton as they go to the polls to vote for the next president of the United States. (Photo by Chip Somodevilla/Getty Images)
People watch voting results at Democratic presidential nominee former Secretary of State Hillary Clinton's election night event at the Jacob K. Javits Convention Center November 8, 2016 in New York City (Photo by Aaron P. Bernstein/Getty Images)
NEW YORK, NY - NOVEMBER 08: Two women hold their faces as they watch voting results at Democratic presidential nominee former Secretary of State Hillary Clinton's election night event at the Jacob K. Javits Convention Center November 8, 2016 in New York City. Clinton is running against Republican nominee, Donald J. Trump to be the 45th President of the United States. (Photo by Win McNamee/Getty Images)
NEW YORK, NY - NOVEMBER 08: A man reacts as he watches voting results at Democratic presidential nominee former Secretary of State Hillary Clinton's election night event at the Jacob K. Javits Convention Center November 8, 2016 in New York City. Clinton is running against Republican nominee, Donald J. Trump to be the 45th President of the United States. (Photo by Aaron P. Bernstein/Getty Images)
A police officer stands outside Trump Tower in New York City on election day November 8, 2016. / AFP PHOTO / DOMINICK REUTERDOMINICK REUTER/AFP/Getty Images
SEOUL, SOUTH KOREA - NOVEMBER 09: People watch an election broadcasting on November 9, 2016 in Seoul, South Korea. South Koreans and Americans have been paying close attention to the U.S. presidential race between Democratic presidential candidate Hillary Clinton and Republican presidential candidate Donald Trump. (Photo by Chung Sung-Jun/Getty Images)
NEW YORK, NY - NOVEMBER 08: Three women watch voting results at Democratic presidential nominee former Secretary of State Hillary Clinton's election night event at the Jacob K. Javits Convention Center November 8, 2016 in New York City. Clinton is running against Republican nominee, Donald J. Trump to be the 45th President of the United States. (Photo by Win McNamee/Getty Images)
Supporters of Republican presidential nominee Donald Trump react as they watch sate by state results unfold on a TV screen during election night at the New York Hilton Midtown in New York on November 8, 2016. / AFP PHOTO / Mandel NGANMANDEL NGAN/AFP/Getty Images
MELBOURNE, AUSTRALIA - NOVEMBER 09: A man shows off his anti-Donald Trump socks at a 'Democrats Abroad' function at the Kingston Hotel on November 9, 2016 in Melbourne, Australia. There has been huge interest in the U.S. Election between Hillary Clinton and Donald Trump in Australia, with many people arranging viewing parties around the country to watch the results live. (Photo by Darrian Traynor/Getty Images)
LONDON, ENGLAND - NOVEMBER 09: Texan musician Josh T. Pearson watches the results come in at a US election night party at the United States Embassy in the early morning hours on November 9, 2016 in London, England. Americans have gone to the polls on November 8 to elect the 45th President of the United States. Hillary Clinton represents the Democrats and, if successful, would be the first woman president in American history. Donald Trump represents the Republicans and his campaign has been dogged by bad publicity, despite this the polls show that either of the two contenders could win with the election too close to call. (Photo by Jack Taylor/Getty Images)
A woman with the mask of US presidential hopeful Hillary Clinton is seen at a bar in Mexico City where peaople, including US citizens, are gathered as US poll results come in, on November 8, 2016. Millions of people in the United Stated turned out Tuesday to decide whether to send Hillary Clinton to the White House as their first woman president or to put their trust in maverick populist Donald Trump. / AFP PHOTO / Pedro PARDOPEDRO PARDO/AFP/Getty Images
A Republican presidential nominee Donald Trump's supporter watches result unfold on a screen during election night at the New York Hilton Midtown in New York on November 8, 2016. / AFP PHOTO / Mandel NGANMANDEL NGAN/AFP/Getty Images
'Uncle Sam' poses with cardboard cut-outs of Hillary Clinton and Donald Trump at a US election party organised by the US Consulate General in Scotland at the University of Edinburgh where party-goers watched TV screens beaming results live from across the Atlantic. PRESS ASSOCIATION Photo. Picture date: Wednesday November 9, 2016. See PA story POLITICS President. Photo credit should read: Jane Barlow/PA Wire
NEW YORK, NY - NOVEMBER 08: People wait for voting results at Democratic presidential nominee former Secretary of State Hillary Clinton's election night event at the Jacob K. Javits Convention Center November 8, 2016 in New York City. Clinton is running against Republican nominee, Donald J. Trump to be the 45th President of the United States. (Photo by Win McNamee/Getty Images)
NEW YORK, NY - NOVEMBER 08: People wait for results at Democratic presidential nominee former Secretary of State Hillary Clinton's election night event at the Jacob K. Javits Convention Center November 8, 2016 in New York City. Clinton is running against Republican nominee, Donald J. Trump to be the 45th President of the United States. (Photo by Elsa/Getty Images)
Workers prepare the stage at the Jacob K. Javits Convention Center in New York on November 8, 2016. US Democratic presidential nominee Hillary Clinton will hold her election nigh party at the convemtion center / AFP PHOTO / DON EMMERTDON EMMERT/AFP/Getty Images
View of the stage at the Jacob K. Javits Convention Center in New York on November 8, 2016 where Democratic presidential candidate Hillary Clinton's election night event is held. Eager voters crowded into polling stations to choose a new US president Tuesday after a wild and bitter contest between the billionaire populist Donald Trump and Hillary Clinton, the Democrat seeking to become the first woman to win the White House. / AFP PHOTO / ANGELA WEISSANGELA WEISS/AFP/Getty Images
WASHINGTON, DC - NOVEMBER 08: The U.S. Captiol is seen November 8, 2016 in Washington, DC. Voters go to the polls today for the U.S. presidential election. (Photo by Alex Wong/Getty Images)
WASHINGTON, DC - NOVEMBER 08: The White House is seen November 8, 2016 in Washington, DC. Voters go to the polls today for the U.S. presidential election. (Photo by Alex Wong/Getty Images)
Workers vacuum the stage at the Jacob K. Javits Convention Center in New York on November 8, 2016 where Democratic presidential candidate Hillary Clinton's election night event is held. Eager voters crowded into polling stations to choose a new US president Tuesday after a wild and bitter contest between the billionaire populist Donald Trump and Hillary Clinton, the Democrat seeking to become the first woman to win the White House. / AFP PHOTO / ANGELA WEISSANGELA WEISS/AFP/Getty Images
A man speaks into a microphone as he prepare the podium for Democratic presidential nominee Hillary Clinton before her election night event at the Jacob K. Javits Convention Center in New York on November 8, 2016. / AFP PHOTO / Jewel SAMADJEWEL SAMAD/AFP/Getty Images
NEW YORK, NY - NOVEMBER 08: Media stand on risers below an American flag ahead of Democratic presidential nominee former Secretary of State Hillary Clinton's event on election night at the Jacob K. Javits Convention Center November 8, 2016 in New York City. Clinton is running against Republican nominee, Donald J. Trump to be the 45th President of the United States. (Photo by Elsa/Getty Images)
The White House is seen during the US presidential election night on November 8, 2016 in Washington,DC. Millions of Americans turned out Tuesday to decide whether to send Hillary Clinton to the White House as their first woman president or to put their trust in maverick populist Donald Trump. / AFP PHOTO / YURI GRIPASYURI GRIPAS/AFP/Getty Images
The White House is seen during the US presidential election night on November 8, 2016 in Washington,DC. Millions of Americans turned out Tuesday to decide whether to send Hillary Clinton to the White House as their first woman president or to put their trust in maverick populist Donald Trump. / AFP PHOTO / YURI GRIPASYURI GRIPAS/AFP/Getty Images
The White House is seen during the US presidential election night on November 8, 2016 in Washington,DC. Millions of Americans turned out Tuesday to decide whether to send Hillary Clinton to the White House as their first woman president or to put their trust in maverick populist Donald Trump. / AFP PHOTO / YURI GRIPASYURI GRIPAS/AFP/Getty Images
CAVE CREEK, AZ - NOVEMBER 08: Motorists pass campaign signs in front of a polling station on November 8, 2016 in Cave Creek, Arizona. Throughout the country, millions of Americans are casting their votes today for either Hillary Clinton or Donald Trump to become the 45th president of the United States. (Photo by Ralph Freso/Getty Images)
The White House in Washington,DC is seen during the US presidential election night on November 8, 2016. Millions of Americans turned out Tuesday to decide whether to send Hillary Clinton to the White House as their first woman president or to put their trust in maverick populist Donald Trump. / AFP PHOTO / YURI GRIPASYURI GRIPAS/AFP/Getty Images
A woman, supporter of the Democrat candidate, shows her ballot before voting during a straw vote organized for the US Presidential elections on November 8, 2016 during the US election night event in Abidjan. America's future hung in the balance on November 8, 2016 as millions of eager voters cast ballots to elect Democrat Hillary Clinton as their first woman president, or hand power to the billionaire populist Donald Trump. / AFP PHOTO / SIA KAMBOUSIA KAMBOU/AFP/Getty Images
A woman, supporter of the Democrat candidate, shows her ballot before voting during a straw vote organized for the US Presidential elections on November 8, 2016 during the US election night event in Abidjan. America's future hung in the balance on November 8, 2016 as millions of eager voters cast ballots to elect Democrat Hillary Clinton as their first woman president, or hand power to the billionaire populist Donald Trump. / AFP PHOTO / SIA KAMBOUSIA KAMBOU/AFP/Getty Images
A man, supporter of the Democrat candidate, shows his ballot before voting during a straw vote organized for the US Presidential elections on November 8, 2016 during the US election night event in Abidjan. America's future hung in the balance on November 8, 2016 as millions of eager voters cast ballots to elect Democrat Hillary Clinton as their first woman president, or hand power to the billionaire populist Donald Trump. / AFP PHOTO / SIA KAMBOUSIA KAMBOU/AFP/Getty Images
LOS ANGELES, CA - NOVEMBER 08: Latinos vote at a polling station in El Gallo Restaurant on November 8, 2016 in the Boyle Heights section of Los Angeles, California. In addition to choosing between Republican Donald Trump or Democrat Hillary Clinton for President of the United States, Californians are deciding on 17 ballot propositions. (Photo by David McNew/Getty Images)
A woman, supporter of the Democrat candidate, thumbs up after voting during a straw vote organized for the US Presidential elections on November 8, 2016 during the US election night event in Abidjan. America's future hung in the balance on November 8, 2016 as millions of eager voters cast ballots to elect Democrat Hillary Clinton as their first woman president, or hand power to the billionaire populist Donald Trump. / AFP PHOTO / SIA KAMBOUSIA KAMBOU/AFP/Getty Images
Two woman watch news on TV to follow the results of the final day of the US presidential election, on November 8, 2016 in Abidjan. America's future hung in the balance on November 8, 2016 as millions of eager voters cast ballots to elect Democrat Hillary Clinton as their first woman president, or hand power to the billionaire populist Donald Trump. / AFP PHOTO / SIA KAMBOUSIA KAMBOU/AFP/Getty Images
BERLIN, GERMANY - NOVEMBER 08: A guest clutches a magazine showing a stylized Hillary Clinton and that reads: "Madam President" at the Democrats Abroad U.S. elections party on November 8, 2016 in Berlin, Germany. Many Germans are watching the U.S. elections closely and a majority are hoping Hillary Clinton will defeat Donald Trump. (Photo by Sean Gallup/Getty Images)
People in patriotic top hats take photographs next to cardboard figures depicting Donald Trump the Republican, left, and Hillary Clinton, the Democratic presidential candidates, during the Election Night Party at the US Embassy in Budapest, Hungary, Tuesday, Nov. 8, 2016. (Balazs Mohai/MTI via AP)
People prepare the stage for Democratic presidential nominee Hillary Clinton before her election night event at the Jacob K. Javits Convention Center in New York on November 8, 2016. / AFP PHOTO / Jewel SAMADJEWEL SAMAD/AFP/Getty Images
BERLIN, GERMANY - NOVEMBER 08: A guest dressed as Donald Trump (R) clowns with a cardboard effigy of Hillary Clinton at the U.S. elections party at the Bertelsmann Representation on November 8, 2016 in Berlin, Germany. Many Germans are watching the U.S. elections closely and a majority are hoping Hillary Clinton will defeat Donald Trump. (Photo by Sean Gallup/Getty Images)
A man vacuums US national flags on the stage that Republican presidential nominee Donald Trump will speak later during election night at the New York Hilton Midtown in New York on November 8, 2016. / AFP PHOTO / JIM WATSONJIM WATSON/AFP/Getty Images

"In that context, the impact of traditional - fact and reason-based - news brands is diluted, flattened because it looks pretty similar to a huge range of other content that include disreputable news, partial news and fake news. In the process trust in the media as a whole is affected along with its impact.

"The editorial endorsement of a newspaper for one candidate or another has become irrelevant because consumers make up their own minds now on the basis of a huge stream of information coming at them every day."

Others have expressed concern that Facebook's algorithms - promoting content that past behaviour suggests a user will like - can lead to an "echo chamber" effect, meaning that people are often exposed only to opinions they tend to agree with.

Richard Sambrook, professor of journalism at Cardiff University, is among those concerned.

He said: "There is no doubt that the online filter bubble polarises views and hardens divisions. And most people don't recognise it.

"Try to find views different from your own on Facebook or Twitter - it's not impossible, but it is really hard.

"The algorithms just serve up what they think you want to see. But diversity of views is very important - it builds understanding and tolerance. Understanding and penetrating these echo chambers is in my view an urgent task."

Either way, Professor Sambrook claims Facebook is "trying to duck the responsibility for what they have enabled" by insisting it is just a technology firm, rather than a media company.

But Mr Newman says research is divided on the "echo chamber" effect, adding: "Yes, the choices that Facebook make mean that you are more likely to see things you like, but there is also evidence that digital and social media expose you to more sources than ever before.

"We should remember that a few decades ago most people only took one newspaper with a defined political perspective. If we want to be, we can be far better informed today."

On the "echo chamber" issue, Mr Zuckerberg told the Techonomy conference: "All the research we have suggests that this isn't really a problem... but for whatever reason we've had a really hard time getting that out."

He said the company's research had found that "almost everyone" had some friends - typically at least 10% - that leaned the other way to them politically.

He added that information received from Facebook was "going to be inherently more diverse" than that previously received through a small number of TV networks or newspapers, many of which had their own political standpoints.

In a statement, Adam Mosseri, Facebook's VP of product management said: "We take misinformation on Facebook very seriously. We value authentic communication, and hear consistently from those who use Facebook that they prefer not to see misinformation.

"In Newsfeed we use various signals based on community feedback to determine which posts are likely to contain inaccurate information, and reduce their distribution.

"In Trending we look at a variety of signals to help make sure the topics being shown are reflective of real-world events, and take additional steps to prevent false or misleading content from appearing.

"Despite these efforts we understand there's so much more we need to do, and that is why it's important that we keep improving our ability to detect misinformation. We're committed to continuing to work on this issue and improve the experiences on our platform."

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