Belfast is the second worst city in the UK for traffic congestion, a report has found.
Commuters lost an average of 112 hours because they were stuck in traffic last year, traffic analyst Inrix said.
UK road commuters lost an average of 115 hours, costing the country £6.9bn and a typical driver £894.
London was found to be the most congested city, with 149 hours lost per driver during peak periods in 2019.
It was ranked eighth in the world for traffic jams.
Belfast was second, followed by Bristol (103 hours), Edinburgh (98 hours) and Manchester (92 hours).
UUP transport spokesperson John Stewart said: "It is an unenviable accolade for Belfast to be the worst city for congestion after London.
"This likely won't come as a surprise to commuters and commercial drivers who are well used to spending significant time bumper to bumper in the city."
He added: "For years there has been drastic underinvestment in road infrastructure in Northern Ireland and we are now seeing the negative impacts of this. The Executive needs to commit to pushing through key infrastructure projects like the York Street interchange to help take pressure off the road network."
Trevor Reed, transportation analyst at Inrix, said of UK congestion: "You can reach a tipping point with a city. You add just enough cars to make nothing work. Sometimes you add one or two per cent more cars, and it causes a vicious cycle of congestion to set in."