12% surge in hate crimes revealed
More than 50,000 hate crimes were reported across England, Wales and Northern Ireland last year, figures show.
These included more than 43,000 race-related crimes and almost 5,000 incidents motivated by whether a person was straight, gay or bisexual, the police service figures reveal.
The Association of Chief Police Officers (Acpo) said the figures, published for the first time on Tuesday, show a more than 12% rise in hate crimes from 46,300 in 2008.
Devon and Cornwall Police Chief Constable Stephen Otter, the Acpo lead for equality, diversity and human rights, said he hopes publishing the figures will "encourage victims and witnesses to come forward".
He went on: "Hate crimes cause a great deal of harm among victims and communities."
"Against the 2008 benchmark year, we believe the 2009 data shows an increase in all five classifications of hate crime. Whilst we want to reduce the incidence of these crimes, it is vital that we close the gap of under-reporting.
"Only by increasing reporting can we gain a full understanding of the extent of hate crime and it is for this reason that I urge victims and witnesses to continue to come forward."
The latest figures show there were 43,426 race-related hate crimes last year, 4,805 motivated by sexual orientation, 2,083 crimes by religion or faith, 1,402 by disability and 312 by transgender issues.
Figures for 2008 show 39,300 race-related crimes, 4,300 motivated by sexual orientation, 1,700 by religion or faith, 800 by disability and 300 by transgender issues, but figures between January and March 2008 for disability and transgender-motivated hate crimes were based on estimates.