Islamic protesters have massed in a British city ahead of a rally addressed by former Pakistan president Pervez Musharraf.
The Islamic political organisation Hizb ut-Tahrir said up to 200 of its supporters had gathered in Birmingham to demonstrate against the ex-military ruler.
General Musharraf is set to address a rally of up to 1,500 people at the city's New Bingley Hall.
The former president, who led Pakistan for nine years from 1999 after taking power in a military coup, is launching a new political party, the All Pakistan Muslim League.
But his critics in Hizb ut-Tahrir branded him "a slave of America" who supported the war against the Muslims of Afghanistan.
They gathered outside the rally venue this morning under banners saying "Musharraf and Zardari: slaves of America" and "Pakistan needs an accountable ruler".
The group's spokesman, Taji Mustafa, said: "The purpose of our demonstration against Musharraf is clear: to expose a man who is no less a slave of America than (current Pakistani president Asif Ali) Zardari who he seeks to replace.
"He is the man...who fuelled bitter divisions within Pakistan; the man who allowed US security forces into Pakistan...
"Pakistan needs a new leadership and new system."
West Midlands Police said officers had been deployed to keep an eye on the protest as a precautionary measure.