Climate change, air pollution and noise impacts of a third runway at Heathrow will be scrutinised by the parliamentary Environmental Audit Committee.
In its first inquiry of the new parliament, the committee will examine environmental concerns around the recommendation by the Airports Commission for a third runway to be built at Heathrow to deal with increased demand for flights.
It will assess whether indicative policies to curb aviation emissions, including charging £330 per tonne of carbon dioxide from flights by 2050, and proposals to tackle local air pollution and noise set out in the Airports Commission's report, are realistic and achievable.
It will also look at what it will mean for wider Government policy, whether there are achievable alternatives to the policies and proposals and what steps ministers should take to make sure their decision fits with commitments on sustainable development.
Committee chairman Huw Irranca-Davies said: "Environmental concerns are a key part of the debate on airport expansion.
"Critics of airport expansion have raised concerns about whether it is possible to expand airport capacity in the South East while meeting the UK's binding commitments on air pollution and climate change.
"We will be examining the Airports Commission's assessment of these issues in order to inform the debate about the future of aviation in the South East."