Malcolm Fraser, the former Australian prime minister who was notoriously catapulted to power by a constitutional crisis that left the nation bitterly divided, has died aged 84.
Mr Fraser was active in public life until the end and his death shocked the nation.
"It is with deep sadness that we inform you that after a brief illness John Malcolm Fraser died peacefully in the early hours of the morning," a statement from his office said.
"We appreciate that this will be a shock to all who knew and loved him, but ask that the family be left in peace at this difficult time."
Tributes poured in from members of the current conservative government, his contemporaries and from all walks of life.
Prime Minister Tony Abbott said Australia's 22nd prime minister had "restored economically responsible government while recognising social change".
He said: "Malcolm Fraser held true to the belief that his actions were in the best interests of Australia. He was determined to 'turn on the lights' and restore Australia's economic fortunes."
Fred Chaney, a minister in Mr Fraser's government, said: " We've lost a really great Australian and someone who I look to as an exemplar for values that I think are important."
With the cultivated Australian accent of the old money families and a stony countenance that cartoonists lampooned as an Easter Island statue, many mistook him for a classical conservative.
But he later became a vocal critic of conservative politics in Australia and a thorn in the side of the centre-right Liberal Party that he once led, and eventually quit in disgust in 2010 following the party's election of Mr Abbott as its leader.
Mr Fraser became the unelected leader of an unsuspecting nation in 1975 when the then Governor-General John Kerr took the unprecedented step of dismissing the chaotic, frenetically reformist government of Gough Whitlam.
It was a development that most Australians had not thought possible. Many were outraged that the Australian representative of the Queen, Australia's distant constitutional head of state, would dare oust a democratically elected government.
An indignant Mr Whitlam branded Mr Fraser as "Kerr's cur," and urged voters to "maintain the rage" at the ballot box.
A month after taking power as a caretaker government, Mr Fraser's conservative coalition won a clear victory over Mr Whitlam's centre-left Labour Party. Mr Fraser won another two three-year terms.
His government's achievements include legislation that gave land back to Aborigines in the Northern Territory, an outcome he always gave credit to Mr Whitlam for initiating.
He strove to transform Australia, a former British colony, into a multicultural society and was a vocal opponent of apartheid in South Africa.
But his legitimacy as a leader never recovered from the controversy over how he got there. The "Kerr's cur" tag lingered in the nation's memory decades later.
Years after Mr Fraser and Mr Whitlam's parliamentary careers ended the two political foes became friends. They shared a disappointment that their rival parties had both shifted to the right on issues including the treatment and detention of asylum seekers.
Mr Whitlam died in October last year aged 98.
Mr Fraser was born in the wealthy suburb of Toorak in Melbourne city on May 21, 1930. He was educated at exclusive Melbourne Grammar School and Oxford University before reluctantly returning to farming in Victorian state.
He recently said he fell into politics by accident, being first elected in 1955 at the age of 25.
He is survived by his wife Tamie and four children.