Five people have been charged with illegal organ trading after a teenager sold a kidney to buy an iPhone and an iPad.
Those held include a surgeon, a hospital contractor and brokers who look for donors online.
The state-run Xinhua news agency claims the group received $35,000 (£22,000) for the transplant in Chenzhou in April 2011.
The 17-year-old student, identified as Wang, is reported to be suffering renal failure.
He is believed to have received $3,000 for his kidney.
About 1.5 million people in China need transplants but only 10,000 are performed a year.