Commuters in Italy are scrambling to find the few buses and subway trains running during a one-day general strike that is also affecting air and rail travel, banks, public offices and schools.
The nationwide strike was called by Italy's biggest labour confederation.
The mass transport walkout was set to last for four hours at morning or evening rush hours.
Flight personnel were set to strike from 10am to 2pm, and railway workers from 2pm to 6pm. Alitalia changed departure times to ensure intercontinental service and reduced domestic and European flights.
Union leaders want the government to ease taxes on salaried workers in a country where the self-employed often evade taxes. They also demand more investment to create jobs.