India’s prime minister has said the entire country is “hurt and angry” at the killing of 20 soldiers by Chinese forces in a disputed Himalayan border region, while denying any Indian territory had been lost.
Addressing a meeting of senior opposition leaders, Narendra Modi said: “The country today has such capability that no one can even dare look towards an inch of our land.”
He underscored that India wants peace and friendship, but upholding sovereignty is foremost.
Sonia Gandhi, the main opposition Congress party chief, had earlier questioned whether intelligence failures had allowed China to build up forces in the area, and called for tough government action in getting China to leave Indian territory.
“We are still in the dark about many crucial aspects of the crisis,” she said.
India and China accuse each other of instigating Monday’s fight in the Galwan Valley, part of the disputed Ladakh region along the Himalayan frontier. China has not said whether it suffered any casualties in what was the deadliest conflict between the sides in 45 years.
Both countries said they were communicating through military and diplomatic channels and stressed the importance of their broader relationship. Experts say the two nations are unlikely to head to war, but easing tensions quickly will be difficult.
China on Friday maintained its position that India was to blame for the clash.
“The right and wrong is very clear and the responsibility lies entirely with the Indian side,” Foreign Ministry spokesman Zhao Lijian said.
Both sides have denied media reports that Indian soldiers were in Chinese custody.
During Monday’s clash soldiers brawled with clubs, rocks and their fists in the thin air at 14,000ft above sea level, but no shots were fired, Indian officials have said. The soldiers carry firearms but are not allowed to use them under a previous agreement in the border dispute.
Indian security officials have said the fatalities were caused by severe injuries and exposure to subzero temperatures.
The clash escalated a standoff that began in early May, when Indian officials said Chinese soldiers crossed the border in three places, erecting tents and guard posts and ignoring warnings to leave.
That triggered shouting matches, stone-throwing and fistfights between the opposing sides, much of it replayed on TV news programmes and in social media.
The action has taken place along a remote stretch of the 2,100-mile Line of Actual Control — the border established following a war between India and China in 1962 that resulted in an uneasy truce.
The rules of engagement along the frontier — which prohibit using live ammunition but also ban physical contact between soldiers — will have to be renegotiated, defence analyst Rahul Bedi said.
“There is a lot of pressure on the Indian side, the emotions are high among the public,” he said.
“It remains to be seen whether India will sit down at the negotiating table with China and say it will like to change these agreements to make them a little more aggressive or offensive in nature.”
In Friday’s meeting with Mr Modi, Ms Gandhi said the “entire country” would like assurances that China will move its forces back to the Line of Actual Control.
Defense minister Rajnath Singh said there was no intelligence failure on the part of the army.
Mr Modi maintained no Indian territory had been captured by China and praised the sacrifice of the soldiers killed, saying they “taught a lesson to those who had dared to look towards our motherland”.
“The nation will forever remember their valour and sacrifice,” he said.
The clash has fanned growing anti-Chinese sentiments in India, which were already high because of the coronavirus pandemic, which began in China late last year. India’s caseload has climbed to fourth-highest in the world.