Search crews have sent a robotic submarine deep into the Indian Ocean for the first time after failing to pick up any signals from the missing Malaysian airliner's black boxes for six days, the leader of the search effort said.
Meanwhile, officials were investigating an oil slick not far from the area where the last underwater sounds were detected, said Angus Houston, the head of a joint agency co-ordinating the search off Australia's west coast.
Crews have collected a sample of the oil and are sending it back to Australia for analysis, a process that will take several days. The oil does not appear to be from any of the ships in the area, but Mr Houston cautioned against jumping to conclusions about its source.
The unmanned underwater vehicle, the Bluefin 21, was launched on Monday evening from the Australian navy ship Ocean Shield, the joint agency said. The autonomous sub can create a three-dimensional sonar map of any debris on the sea floor.
The move comes after crews picked up a series of underwater sounds over the past two weeks that were consistent with signals from an aircraft's black boxes, which contain flight data and cockpit voice recordings. The devices emit "pings" so they can be more easily found, but their batteries last only about a month, and it has been more than a month since the plane vanished.
"Today is day 38 of the search," Mr Houston told a news conference. "We haven't had a single detection in six days, so I guess it's time to go under water."
Australian prime minister Tony Abbott raised hopes last week when he said authorities were "very confident" the four underwater signals that have been detected were from the black boxes on Flight MH370, which disappeared on March 8 during a flight from Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, to Beijing with 239 people on board.
But Mr Houston warned that while the signals are a promising lead, the public needs to be realistic about the challenges facing search crews in the extremely remote, deep patch of ocean - an area he dubbed "new to man".
"I would caution you against raising hopes that the deployment of the autonomous underwater vehicle will result in the detection of the aircraft wreckage. It may not," Mr Houston said. "However, this is the best lead we have, and it must be pursued vigorously. Again, I emphasise that this will be a slow and painstaking process."
The Ocean Shield had been dragging a US navy device called a towed pinger locator through the water to listen for any sounds from the black boxes' beacons.
The Bluefin sub takes six times longer to cover the same area as the ping locator, and the two devices cannot be used at the same time. Crews had been hoping to detect additional signals before sending down the sub, so they could triangulate the source and zero in on where exactly the black boxes may be.
The submarine will take 24 hours to complete each mission: two hours to dive to the bottom, 16 hours to search the sea floor, two hours to return to the surface, and four hours to download the data, Mr Houston said. In its first deployment, it will search a 40-square kilometre (15-square mile) section of sea floor.
The black boxes could contain the key to unravelling the mystery of what happened to Flight MH370. Investigators believe the plane went down in the southern Indian Ocean based on a flight path calculated from its contacts with a satellite and an analysis of its speed and fuel capacity. But they still do not know why.
A visual search for debris on the ocean surface continued on Monday over 47,600 square kilometres (18,400 square miles) of water about 2,200 kilometres (1,400 miles) north west of the west coast city of Perth. A total of 12 planes and 15 ships joined the searches.
But Mr Houston said the visual search operation will end in the next two to three days. Officials have not found a single piece of debris confirmed to be from the plane, and Mr Houston said the chances that any would be found have "greatly diminished".
"We've got no visual objects," he said. "The only thing we have left at this stage is the four transmissions and an oil slick in the same vicinity, so we will investigate those to their conclusion."
Complicating matters further is the depth of the ocean in the search area. The sea floor is about 4,500 metres (15,000 feet) below the surface, which is the deepest the Bluefin can dive. Officials are looking for other vehicles that could help to retrieve any wreckage, should the Bluefin find any.
Searchers are also contending with a thick layer of silt on the bottom that is tens of metres deep in places, which could hide debris that has sunk.
US navy captain Mark Matthews said the silt may not have hidden everything, however.
"Our experience shows that there will be some debris on top of the silt and you should be able to see indications of a debris field," Mr Matthews said. "But every search is different."
A British vessel, the HMS Echo, has equipment that can help map the sea floor in the area, which is more flat than mountainous, Mr Houston said.