Spain's National Court has opened a probe into Volkswagen for possible fraud and environmental offences over the emissions scandal at the German car maker.
A court statement called for a Volkswagen representative to appear before the court on November 10.
The decision follows a recommendation from prosecutors who said the alleged offences may have affected people across Spain.
They added that, given that the cars in question qualified for state subsidies, the company's actions could constitute fraud.
Volkswagen's Spanish subsidiary, Seat, said it fitted 700,000 vehicles with the EA 189 diesel engines that had software enabling them to cheat on emissions tests.
Volkswagen says 11 million cars worldwide have such software.
The prosecutors were acting on complaints filed by a Spanish anti-corruption group and a victims' association.